The Attorney General provides Consumer Alerts to inform the public of unfair, misleading, or deceptive business practices, and to provide information and guidance on other issues of concern. Consumer Alerts are not legal advice, legal authority, or a binding legal opinion from the Department of Attorney General.
The largest recent example of a Ponzi scheme was that operated by Bernard Madoff, who scammed investors out of billions of dollars. Even though many consumers may think Ponzi schemes are rare and easy to spot, in reality, Ponzi schemes are common, and can fool even very experienced investors into investing large sums of money. This Consumer Alert will provide you with some helpful tips on how to avoid falling for a Ponzi scheme, what to do if you become a victim and where to find additional information.
A Ponzi scheme is named after Charles Ponzi, who is believed to be the inventor of this type of scam. In the early 20th century, Mr. Ponzi convinced investors that they would get a 40 to 50% on their investment in International Postal Reply Coupons (IPRCs) within 90 days. Early investors received payouts as promised because Mr. Ponzi was using funds from later investors to give the promised payouts to earlier investors. The scam continued to grow, as more and more investors, lured by stories of huge payouts, invested their money in IPRCs. Eventually, the scheme collapsed, but not before investors paid Mr. Ponzi several million dollars - which was an astronomical sum, especially in the early 20th century.
Present day Ponzi schemes operate in essentially the same way as their namesake. Early investors, lured by promises of huge payouts in a short amount of time, invest large sums of money (sometimes even millions of dollars) in whatever investment the perpetrator is selling at a given time. The perpetrator may be offering investments in real estate, natural resources (i.e., oil or natural gas reserves), or any other type of investment a creative perpetrator can come up with.
The hallmark of a "successful" Ponzi scheme is that early investors will receive their payouts as promised. Early investors spread their tales of success to unwittingly entice new investors into the scam. Ponzi schemes may continue to grow for several months, or possibly several years, before people eventually catch on, and the scheme collapses.
If experienced investors fall for ponzi schemes, how can I spot and avoid them?
If you've been approached to invest in what appears to be a Ponzi scheme, or if you have invested in what you believe to be a Ponzi scheme, file a complaint with LARA's Bureau of Commercial Services. Visit LARA's website for more information on how to file a securities complaint, or call 1-877-999-6442.
If you would like additional information on how to spot investment scams, you may wish to visit the following websites:
If you have a general consumer complaint, please file a complaint with the Attorney General's Consumer Protection Division at:Consumer Protection Division