Content

Introduction

This resource guide provided information in four primary segments:

Preparing for Emergencies

Protecting Building Environments

Emergency Plans

Bomb Threat

Terrorism and Industrial Chemicals

Terrorism and Biological/Chemical Agents 
(including anthrax)

Website Information

 

Introduction

The world will never be the same following September 11, 2001. In response to the events at the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and numerous anthrax scares–government officials are working to protect citizens from acts of terrorism. Many federal and state government agencies are developing guidelines related to bio/chemical terrorism for businesses and the general public.

Terrorism presents a new workplace hazard. Typically we know what the hazards of the workplace are, and we know how to protect workers against known risks. However, the hazards of terrorism are not a part of the workplace–they are unexpected and they may be unknown. When dealing with the unexpected a cooperative effort is essential.

Although this brochure provides some direct information, its main function is to provide a list of Internet websites where the user can find detailed information. Many of the websites are listed using the home site and the user will need to search for the topic. Whenever a link fails we suggest backing up to the home page and executing a search for the specific material.

MIOSHA'S ROLE
The role of the Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration (MIOSHA) is providing information and guidance for Michigan employers–we are not creating new workplace standards or requirements.


RISK MANAGEMENT
Although terrorism has been recently recognized as a workplace hazard, the methods of risk management remain the same. The safety and health professional’s role has always been recognizing risk, then determining and implementing methods of risk reduction or elimination, "Risk Management." Since 9/11 the specific risks that need to be managed have expanded to include a new challenge.

Below is a brief outline of the Risk Management process:

  • Identify what can go wrong.

  • Identify what are the consequences.

  • Determine how likely the event is.

  • Determine if action is needed.

  • Determine what action is needed.

  • Take action.

  • Determine if appropriate actions were taken (This is an ongoing process that requires annual review.)

Risk Management details can be found at the South Carolina Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation www.llr.state.sc.us/workplace/workplacesecurity.htm

1. Preparing for Emergencies
No one expects an emergency or disaster to directly affect them, their employees or their business. An emergency or disaster, however, can happen to anyone, anywhere at any time. Workplace emergencies in the past have included: fires, floods, toxic gas releases or chemical spills, explosions, etc. Now that list also must include acts of terrorism.
When an emergency happens, few people can think clearly and logically during the crisis. Thus, it is important to prepare to respond to an emergency before it occurs. A typical procedure for planning emergency response includes the following:
  • Meet and brainstorm the worst-case scenarios.
  • Take action to reduce the potential for an emergency occurring.
  • Plan what to do if the worst happens.
  • Train employees regarding the emergency plan.
To assist in this process, information is included regarding:
  • PROTECTING BUILDING ENVIRONMENTS
  • EMERGENCY PLANS
  • BOMB THREAT PROCEDURES

PROTECTING BUILDING ENVIRONMENTS

Evaluate Your Potential as a Terrorist Target
There are facilities that historically appear more likely to be a terrorist target. These facilities may include:

  • Airports,
  • Power and nuclear plants,
  • Bridges, tunnels and other structures,
  • Facilities that house chemical or biological agents,
  • Government agencies and offices,
  • Schools and educational institutions,
  • Financial institutions, and
  • Media organizations.
Some facilities are easier targets. These facilities may include:
  • Facilities with easily accessible outdoor air inlets,
  • Facilities easily accessible by unauthorized personnel, and
  • Facilities with unrestricted vehicle traffic.

Evaluate Your Building Vulnerability
Preventing terrorist access to a targeted facility
requires physical security of entry, storage, roof, and mechanical areas, as well as securing access to the outdoor air intakes of the building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The physical security of each building should be assessed, as the threat of an attack will vary considerably from building to building. While the identification and resolution of building vulnerabilities will be specific to each building, some physical security actions are applicable to many building types. The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) have developed new guidelines for protecting buildings, and particularly ventilation systems, in commercial and government buildings from chemical, biological and radiological attacks.These guidelines offer practical advice to building owners, managers and maintenance staffs on the steps they can take to protect their ventilation systems airflow and filtration, systems maintenance, program administration and maintenance staff training. The guidelines recommend that security measures be adopted for air intakes and return-air grilles, and that access to building operations systems and building design information should be restricted. More information on protecting buildings can be found at United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: www.cdc.gov/niosh , Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks NIOSH Pub. #2002-139.

Building Security Actions

  • Prevent access to outdoor air intakes.
  • Prevent public access to mechanical areas.
  • Prevent public access to building roof.
  • Implement security measures to protect vulnerable areas.
  • Isolate lobbies, mailrooms, loading docks, and storage areas.
  • Restrict access to building operations systems by outside personnel.
  • Restrict access to building information (design, operation, emergency plans).
  • Implement general building security upgrades.
Building Security Upgrades
  • Install alarms, closed circuit television, fencing, and/or security guards.
  • Test the alarms monthly, and replace the alarms every 10 years.
  • Provide working sprinkler systems and fire extinguishers.
  • Conduct employee background checks.
  • Eliminate curbside parking.
  • Control vehicle entrance to parking lots, or locate parking away from the building.
  • Issue vehicle identification decals.
  • Install building access control devices.
  • Limit shipping/receiving access to approved venders/carriers.
  • Secure return-air grilles.
  • Escort or pre-approve mechanical contractors for sensitive areas.
  • Develop emergency response plans, policies and procedures.
  • Coordinate the plans with local emergency response personnel.
  • Train and rehearse the procedures, make sure that building operators can quickly manipulate and shut down the HVAC system.
  • Determine how to seal off entrances and exits.
  • Plan escape routes.
  • Select an outdoor meeting place.
  • Practice the escape plan.

Building Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) System Controls
In response to an air contaminant event, it would be necessary to manipulate the HVAC system. Thus, it is important to evaluate the specific HVAC control options.

HVAC system controls:

  • Identify system shutdown.
  • Increase outside air exchange (up to 100 percent outdoor air).
  • Check zone pressurization.
  • Locate local area exhaust.
  • Test strategic equipment.
  • Install the highest efficiency filtration compatible with the HVAC system’s design criteria.
Outdoor air intakes:
  • Identify and prevent unauthorized access.
  • Relocate intakes to an inaccessible area.
  • Build extensions to protect vulnerable intakes.
  • Create a security zone around the intake.
Mechanical areas and roofs:
  • Restrict access to prevent tampering with or contamination of HVAC and other mechanical equipment.
  • Secure mechanical and HVAC areas throughout the building.
  • Require authorized roof access. Access to any mechanical area should be strictly controlled, a log of entry into the area maintained, and accountability for keys, key codes, and access cards enforced.

For buildings that are high risk:
Consider installing filters or devices that capture and kill biologicals in air returns from specific areas (mailrooms, etc.), and/or outdoor air supply.

Caution:

  • Do not permanently seal or restrict outdoor air intakes, the exception would be an outdoor air release of a biological, nuclear or chemical agent. In that case it may be better to shut down the HVAC system, seal outdoor air entrances, and remain in the building. In such an emergency, use of a disposable N-95 filter respirator could be effective in reducing exposure.
  • Do not modify HVAC systems, including filters, without evaluating the system effects and the effect the modifications would have on building occupants.
  • Do not interfere with fire protection systems.

EMERGENCY PLANS
MIOSHA has regulations addressing Emergency Plans in the event of fires or chemical spills. The following rules address emergency plans.

General Industry Safety Standard Part 6, lists requirements for Emergency Escape Procedures and Routes in Rule 608. Rule 608 requires that employers inform employees of emergency escape procedures and emergency routes to approved means of egress. In addition, employers must ensure that a sufficient number of persons are designated to assist in a safe and orderly evacuation.

Construction Safety Standards Part 18, lists requirements for Employee Emergency Action Plans in Rule 1842. Rule 1842 requires emergency escape procedures and routes, head counting and procedures to be followed by employees who remain and operate critical plant operations before they evacuate, etc.

Occupational Health Standard Part 432, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) lists requirements for emergency response plans in Rule 30. Rule 30 covers development of emergency response plans for workers that respond to an uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance.

The problem with these regulations is their limited scope. They were designed specifically for actions to ensure employee safety from fire or an uncontrolled release of a chemical, which are pre-9/11 emergencies. Now the scope of "emergency" must be expanded to include items like bomb threat procedures, community emergency preparedness, and non-evacuation emergencies.

In some emergencies it may be appropriate to use the building as a "Safe Zone" and not evacuate. Typically in emergencies we think of evacuating the building. However, in some weather emergencies (e.g. tornado) we do not evacuate but seek shelter in a safe area in the building.

Another exception to building evacuation would occur if a biological, chemical or nuclear contaminant was released outdoors near the facility. The best practice would be to turn off the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) units, seal all outdoor air entrances (doors, windows and fresh air entrances) and remain in the building until an all clear is announced.

Planning for a non-evacuation emergency could mean supplying food and water; materials to seal doors, windows and out door air intakes; having a plan to manipulate the ventilation system; and even supplying disposable respirators. The N-95 disposable respirator ($1.50 each) is often effective in reducing exposure to airborne particulate.


BOMB THREAT PROCEDURES

What people are most afraid of is biological, chemical or nuclear terrorism. However, if we consider Europe’s experience, the most likely terrorism tool is a conventional bomb. This is because explosives are relatively easy to obtain and use. Schools have been the frequent targets of bomb threats. Thus, we are including the following Bomb Threat Procedures and Bomb Threat Check List.

Sample Bomb Threat Procedure
1. The person receiving call uses checklist, notes all vital information, and reports to the site supervisor immediately.
2. The site supervisor calls 911.
3.
If a bomb may be inside the building, follow these steps:

  • Check evacuation routes and evacuation area for unusual objects, which may be a bomb. Do not touch anything that may be a bomb.
  • Order evacuation. Announce the evacuation by an adult runner. Do not use intercoms, telephones, cell phones, hand-held radios, pagers, bells or other electronic devices.
  • When evacuating, check visually for unusual objects which may be a bomb, or anything not recognized as belonging in the surrounding area. Report anything unusual to the authorities, but do not touch anything that may be a bomb.
  • Leave the lights on and the doors unlocked.
  • Move to an evacuation area well away from the building. This could be a nearby open space, such as a park, or a neighboring facility. Do not evacuate to any area where a bomb could be hidden, e.g. the parking lot, or near any object in which a bomb could be hidden, e.g. a dumpster.
  • Allow law enforcement or the bomb squad to determine an "all clear," and return to work.

Sample Bomb Threat Check List

1. Record the exact wording of the threat.



2. Ask questions like:

  • When is the bomb going to go off?
  • Where is the bomb?
  • What does the bomb look like?
  • What kind of a bomb is it?
  • What will make the bomb explode?
  • Did you place the bomb?
  • Why?
  • Who are you?
  • Where do you live?
3. List:
  • Anything that would help to identify the caller: voice type; nasal__, soft__, loud__, slurred__, male__, female__, accent__, lisp__
  • Any background noises: street noise__, factory__, house noises__, children’s voices__, PA systems__, static__.
4. Language used:
  • Educated__, incoherent__, message read by caller__, irrational__, taped__, foul__.

5. Signature of person taking the call.


6. Phone number that received the call.


7. Date and time of call.


2. Terrorism and Industrial Chemicals

There is concern about the use of industrial chemicals as terrorist weapons for several reasons. Industrial chemicals are available in quantity and the large volume offsets their lower toxicity. It is much easier to cause an explosion resulting in a chemical release or spill than to make military agents or obtain biological weapons. Even when chemical or biological weapons are obtained it can be hard to use them effectively.

Aum Shinrikyo, (the Japanese terrorist group that released Sarin gas in the Tokyo sub-way system) released Anthrax reportedly 8 times in Tokyo, and no one was infected. Conversely in Bhopal, India, a chemical plant system malfunction in 1984 caused a catastrophic chemical leak resulting in severe injury and the devastating loss of life for thousands in the surrounding community.


Some MIOSHA standards that address industrial chemicals are: Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER), Process Safety Management (PSM), and Hazard Communication/Right to Know. These standards help employers identify hazards, but do not require them to evaluate hazardous chemicals or processes.

Although the PSM standard contains a 130-plus list of highly hazardous chemicals, terrorism prevention was not considered when selecting the chemicals, thresholds or processes. If we look at this chemical list from the terrorist’s point of view there are very obvious omissions. A recent review of 167 chemical accidents that killed more than 100 people found that over half of the chemicals involved were not on the PSM list.

Because no list could ever be all-inclusive, it is more practical to define chemical categories. Employers who maintain a large inventory of hazardous chemicals may want to follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) "Ten Step Hazard Analysis." The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has identified one of the best lists of hazardous chemical categories. The list of nine categories can be found on their website at: and is printed below (DOT Chart 10, Hazardous Materials, Marking, Labeling & Placarding Guide).

  • Explosive or Blasting agent;
  • Oxygen;
  • Flammable, Combustible, Gasoline, Fuel Oil, or Dangerous When Wet;
  • Oxidizer or Organic Peroxide;
  • Poison;
  • Infectious or Etiological Material;
  • Radioactive;
  • Corrosive; or
  • Chlorine.

The "Ten Step Hazard Analysis"

The CDC developed the "Ten Step Hazard Analysis" to help employers identify threats posed by industrial chemicals and prevent their use as improvised weapons.

1. Identify, assess and prioritize threats - highly hazardous chemicals, explosives, easily accessible piping and valves, railway cars of hazardous chemicals at leased sidings, etc.
2.
Identify local sources of chemicals or biologicals that may be used in improvised weapons.
3. Evaluate potential exposure pathways.
4. Identify potential acute and chronic health impacts.
5. Estimate potential impacts on infrastructure and the environment.
6. Identify health risk communication needs.
7. Identify methods to mitigate potential hazards.
8. Identify specific steps to prevent the use of industrial chemicals as improvised weapons.
9. Incorporate the threat assessment, mitigation, and prevention information into emergency response plans.
10. Conduct training exercises to prepare to prevent and mitigate the threats.

Protection Recommendations

Depending on your hazard "risk" analysis, some or all of the following recommendations may be applicable to your workplace:

  • Provide and check company ID’s.
  • Conduct employee awareness training. (Reference Part 432., Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, HAZWOPER.)
  • Empower all employees to report suspicious conditions and behavior.
  • Restrict access to the facility and implement employee contractor screening and accountability procedures.
  • Provide onsite security.
  • Install fencing and cameras in critical areas.
  • Know the locations of hazardous chemicals.
  • Know and understand the hazards of the chemicals.
  • Reduce inventories of hazardous materials.
  • Substitute less hazardous chemicals.
  • Partner with emergency management professionals concerning emergency response plans.
  • Develop the capability to respond to releases of industrial chemicals.
  • Conduct emergency training on a regular basis.
In the future, industrial chemicals may be regulated by the "Chemical Security Act" which has introduced at the time this brochure was published.

3.Terrorism & Biological/Chemical Agents

Since 9/11 and subsequent anthrax mailborne terrorist attacks, the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has been involved in a collaborative effort to learn what plans and procedures are appropriate to address the new threat of terrorism in the workplace.

OSHA convened a bioterrorism task force that included: the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and other agencies. Employers, workers and government agencies have joined together against a common enemy to keep workers safe.

MIOSHA is developing information, including this brochure, to help Michigan employers take reasonable and necessary steps to assure the safety of their workers.


POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL/CHEMICAL TERRORIST AGENTS

We do not know what terrorist events may happen in the future. We do know that there are a variety of materials that are potential biological/chemical terrorist agents.

  • Anthrax
    Anthrax organisms can infect the skin, the gastrointestinal system, or the lungs. To cause infection, the anthrax spores must come into contact with broken or abraded skin, swallowed, or inhaled as a fine dust. However, anthrax infection can be prevented even after exposure to anthrax spores by early treatment with the appropriate antibiotics (see CDC Health Advisory). Anthrax spores can be dispersed in the air as a dust or can be carried on items such as mail or clothing. However, unlike the common cold or flu, anthrax infection itself is not spread from one person to another.

Anthrax is an effective bio-terrorism agent because it’s inhalation form is lethal if not treated with antibiotics, it is relatively easy to produce, and it is very durable. However, it is hard to aerosolize and distribute, and there has to be a significant dose to be infective. The U.S. has a cell free filtrate vaccine (contains no dead or live bacteria) and production of the vaccine is ongoing.

  • Smallpox
    The most feared bioterrorism agent is
    smallpox. Smallpox is fatal in about 30 percent of the cases, with the remaining 70 percent running the course of the disease in about one month. This is a highly contagions disease and infected persons can spread the virus to others before realizing they are infected. Smallpox has been eradicated, with the last known case occurring in Somalia in 1977. Known stocks of the virus exist in only two World Health Organization laboratories. However, there are reports that the former Soviet government produced smallpox in large quantities as a biological weapon. The U.S. has a limited supply of smallpox vaccine and is working on producing additional doses.

Other Potential Bioterrorism Agents:

  • Plague - Bubonic or pneumonic, highly infectious and potentially fatal, but treatable with antibiotics.

  • Botulism - Rapidly fatal, caused by a naturally occurring bacteria, about 25 cases per year in the U.S. are treated by taking an antidote as soon as possible.

  • Tularemia - Potentially fatal, usually caused by contact with diseased animals, treated with antibiotics.

  • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers - Such as Ebola, a bloodborne infectious disease.

  • Ricin Toxin - Potentially fatal poison derived from castor bean plants, no antidote or vaccine.

  • Q Fever - Highly infectious by aerosol, usually self-limiting, but complications can include pneumonia, meningitis, etc., usually non-fatal, but an ideal incapacitation biological warfare agent.

Other Potential Chemical Terrorism Weapons:

  • Sarin - Nerve gas, used as a terrorism weapon in Tokyo subway.

  • Mustard Gas - Causes skin burns and blisters and respiratory problems, used in World War I and the Iran-Iraq war.

  • Chlorine - Drinking water and swimming pool disinfectant, corrosive to the skin, eyes and lungs.

  • Phosgene - Causes fatal lung congestion, used in World War I.

  • Hydrogen Cyanide - Causes asphyxiation by blocking cellular metabolism of oxygen, etc., used mainly in electroplating.


HANDLING SUSPICIOUS MAIL

Most employers and employees face little or no risk of exposure to anthrax and need only minimal precautions, but some may have to deal with potential or known exposures. Federal OSHA developed an Anthrax Matrix in consultation with the U. S. Postal Service, the CDC and NIOSH, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the FBI.

The Anthrax Matrix guides employers in assessing risk to their workers, providing appropriate protective equipment and specifying safe work practices for low-, medium- and highrisk levels in the workplace. MIOSHA and OSHA expect to continually update information on anthrax and other terrorism threats as new guidance becomes available.

The federal OSHA website now includes:

  • An Anthrax Risk Reduction Matrix - a guide in assessing worker risk,

  • A fact sheet on glove use,

  • Frequently asked questions,

  • Links to other sources,

  • Information concerning emergency preparedness, and

  • Recommendations for handling suspicious packages or letters.

OSHA, the CDC, the U.S. Postal Service, and the FBI have all developed guidelines for businesses and the general public if they encounter suspicious mail and/or packages. In each of the guidelines, after making sure the material is isolated and that all exposed persons have washed their hands–they advise that local law enforcement authorities be called immediately.

These guidelines emphasize preventing the spread of anthrax spores through careful handling and isolation of suspicious packages and their contents.

General Mail Handling

  • Be on the lookout for suspicious envelopes or packages.

  • Do NOT open suspicious mail.

  • Open all non-suspicious mail with a letter opener or another method that minimizes skin contact and doesn’t disturb contents.

  • Open mail with a minimum amount of movement.

  • Do not blow into envelopes.

  • Keep hands away from nose and mouth while opening mail.

  • Turn off fans, portable heaters, and other equipment that may create air currents.

  • Wash hands after handling mail.

Employers should designate individuals who are trained to respond in the event they receive a suspicious mailing. At a minimum, the designated employees should know how to contact facility managers, local emergency responders, and local law enforcement officials. Additionally, they should have authority to secure potentially contaminated areas or to direct others to do so.


THE FIRST RESPONDER

MIOSHA rules are designed to help protect first responders when the release or potential threat of release of biological, chemical or radiological agents has occurred. Specifically, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER), Firefighter/Right to Know, and Hazard Communication/Right to Know apply.

Any time a firefighter or other first responder approaches a potentially hazardous atmosphere (including a biological hazard), a plan is required that includes: an assessment of the hazard and exposure potential, respiratory protection and protective clothing needs, entry conditions, exit routes and decontamination. (See MIOSHA Firefighter/Right to Know, Section 14.)

Some of the items to consider when responding to a terrorist incident are included in the following:

For health care employers and emergency responders, there is a large body of response planning information. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), CDC, the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Department of Defense, and OSHA have several resources about how hospitals can plan and prepare for terrorist events. The Michigan Department of Community Health has recently opened the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response to Bioterrorism, to help state and local health agencies upgrade preparedness for and response to bioterrorism, infectious disease outbreaks and other public health threats.

INCIDENT COMMAND

There is potential for catastrophic incidents in any community. Whether the disaster is a naturally occuring tornado, hurricane, earthquake, flood, or blizzard or a man made terrorist incident, there can be significant community impact.

The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a comprehensive, national approach to catastrophic incident managment that enables all government, private sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together.

The intent of NIMS is to be applicable across a full spectrum of potential incidents and hazard scenarios, regardless of the size or complexity; and, improve coordination and cooperation between public and private entities.

NIMS provides a flexible framework and a set of standardized organizational structures, as well as requirement for processes, procedures and systems.

Information about NIMS can be located on the FEMA webpage: www.fema.gov.

Federal OSHA has also published "Best Practices for the Protection of Hospital - Based First Receivers." This document discusses OSHA's Rationale for PPE selection and hazard assessment for first receivers of victims of mass casualty incidents.

4. Website Information
HOME PAGE WEBSITES

American Hospital Association

Canadian Center for Occupational Safety and Health

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Michigan Department of Community Health

Michigan Occupational Safety and Health (MIOSHA)

Michigan State Police

Michigan Homeland Security

Michigan Prepares

Michigan State University Office of Radiation, Chemical & Biological Safety

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

U.S. Department of Defense

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

U.S. Department of Homeland Security

U.S.Department of Transportation (DOT)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

U.S. Postal Service

White House Homeland Security


Additional Website Information

Anthrax
Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Anthrax


FEMA

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

CDC Emergency Preparedness and Response: Anthrax

Bioterrorism Preparedness
National Terrorism Preparedness Institute

Building Security
Environmental Protection Agency

American Institute of Architecture

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

"Chemical - Biological Terrorism Awareness and Response to the Threat"
American Industrial Hygiene Association

Chemicals
American Chemistry

Chemtrec: The 24 Hour HAZMAT Communications Center

Emergency Plans
OSHA Emergency Preparedness

Michigan State Police

NIOSH Emergency Response Resources

Explosives
U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

Extension Disaster Education Network
www.agctr.lsu.edu/eden

First Responders
NIOSH Emergency Response Resources
OSHA Emergency Preparedness and Response

Food and Water
Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture
Gateway to Government Food Safety Information

Guidelines for Health Care Providers in Clinics and Hospital Emergency Departments
Michigan Homeland Security: Public Health Resources

Helping Children and Families Cope with Disaster
Michigan Homeland Security: Family Preparedness Guide

Industrial Plant Security
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality: Water and wastewater facilities

Industrial Plant Security
Environmental Health Watch: Chemical Facility Site Security
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality: Water and wastewater facilities

U. S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases:
"Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook"(CONTINUED)

U. S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense:
"Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Handbook"
"Textbook of Military Medicine"
"Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare"

MIOSHA Occupational Health Standard
Part 432., Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response - Rule 18 and Appendix B

Canada Office for Laboratory Security:
MSDS for Infectious Agents

Pesticides
EPA Pesticide Resources

Public Health Assessment of Biological Terrorism Agents and Chemical Weapons
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Biological Agents/Diseases

Radioactive Materials
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Response to an Incident
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Research and Special Programs Administration Office of Hazardous Materials Safety

Risk Assessment
South Carolina Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation, Workplace Security

Select Agents Regulation (infectious materials)
CDC Office of Health and Safety

Selection and Use of Protective Clothing and Respirators Against Biological and Chemical Weapons
U.S. Army Soldier & Biological Chemical Command: Personal Protective Equipment

Department of Defense (DoD) Information Analysis Center (IAC)

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH) National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL)

Surface Transportation Security
Federal Transit Administration (FTA)

Suspicious Mail Handling Procedures
U.S. Postal Service: Mail Center Security Guide
OSHA Anthrax Risk Reduction Matrix

Training Course Concerning Bio/Chemical Terrorism
Michigan State Police Emergency Management Training

Transportation and Transfer of Biological Agents
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Health and Safety

 

 

Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs
Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Consultation Education and Training Division
7150 Harris Drive, P.O. Box 30643
Lansing, MI 48909

(517) 322-1809
MIOSHA/CET #0153 (Rev. 9/03)


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