Native Treaties Shared Rights Exhibit Bibliography of Complimentary Materials

Case One

Masters of Empire: Great Lakes Indians and the Making of America
By Michael A. McDonnell

Highlighting the long-standing rivalries and relationships among the great Indian nations of North America, McDonnell shows how Europeans often played only a minor role in this history, and reminds us that it was native peoples who possessed intricate and far-reaching networks of commerce and kinship, of which the French and British knew little. As empire encroached upon their domain, the Anishinaabeg were often the ones doing the exploiting. By dictating terms at trading posts and frontier forts, they played a crucial part in the making of early America.  Through vivid depictions, all from a native perspective, of early skirmishes, the French and Indian War, and the American Revolution, Masters of Empire overturns our assumptions about colonial America. By calling attention to the Great Lakes as a crucible of culture and conflict, McDonnell reimagines the landscape of American history.

Michigan Collection: E 99 .O9 M36 2015

 

Fresh Water Passages: The Trade and Travels of Peter Pond
By David Chapin

Peter Pond, a fur trader, explorer, and amateur mapmaker, spent his life ranging much farther afield than Milford, Connecticut, where he was born and died (1740-1807). He traded around the Great Lakes, on the Mississippi and the Minnesota Rivers, and in the Canadian Northwest and is also well known as a partner in Montreal’s North West Company and as mentor to Alexander Mackenzie, who journeyed down the Mackenzie River to the Arctic Sea.  Knowing eighteenth-century North America in a scale that few others did, Pond drew some of the earliest maps of western Canada.​

Michigan Collection F 1060.7 .P78 C48 2014

 

Michigan Territory​
Drawn by J. Finlayson, Engraved by Young & Delleker

1 Map, hand colored, 36x26 cm showing portions of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Ontario.

Michigan Rare Maps: G 4110 1822 .F56

 

Sixty Years' War for the Great Lakes, 1754-1814
Edited by David Curtis Skaggs and Larry L. Nelson

Collectively, these important essays delineate the common thread, weaving together the series of wars for the North American heartland that stretched from 1754 to 1814.  The war for the Great Lakes was not merely a sideshow in a broader, worldwide struggle for empire, independence, self-determination, and territory.  Rather it was a single war, a regional conflict waged to establish hegemony within the area, forcing interactions that divided the Great Lakes nationally and ethnically for the two centuries that followed.

Michigan Collection: F551 .S53 2001

 

War under Heaven: Pontiac, the Indian Nations, and the British Empire 
By Gregory Evans Dowd

The 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded much of the continent east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, a claim which the Indian nations of the Great Lakes, who suddenly found themselves under British rule, considered outrageous.  Unlike the French, with whom Great Lakes Indians had formed an alliance of convenience, the British entered the upper Great Lakes in a spirit of conquest.  British officers on the frontier keenly felt the need to assert their assumed superiority over both Native Americans and European settlers.  At the same time, Indian leaders expected appropriate tokens of British regard, gifts the British refused to give.  It is this issue of respect that, according to Gregory Dowd, lies at the root of the war the Ottawa chief Pontiac and his alliance of Great Lakes Indians waged on the British Empire between 1763 and 1767.

Michigan Collection: E 83.76 .D69 2002

 

Ogimaag Anishinaabeg Leadership, 1760-1845
By Cary Miller

Ogimaag: Anishinaabeg Leadership, 1760–1845 reexamines Ojibwe leadership practices and processes in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. At the end of the nineteenth century, anthropologists who had studied Ojibwe leadership practices developed theories about human societies and cultures derived from the perceived Ojibwe model. Scholars believed that the Ojibwes typified an anthropological “type” of Native society, one characterized by weak social structures and political institutions. Miller counters those assumptions by looking at the historical record and examining how leadership was distributed and enacted long before scholars arrived on the scene. Miller uses research produced by Ojibwes themselves, American and British officials, and individuals who dealt with the Ojibwes, both in official and unofficial capacities.

Michigan Collection: E 99 .C6 M48 2010

 

Michigan Indians: Trails and Treaties Map
By Michigan Humanities Council

Michigan Collection, Maps: E78 .M6 M534 1990Z

 

Case Two

Indians of the Americas.
By John Collier

Though faulted for having a one size fits all policy pertaining to First Nations, Collier, under President Roosevelt, was the main force behind the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
Distribution of the Aboriginal Population of Michigan.

Main Collection: E58 .C6 1947 

 

Indian Reorganization Act, or Howard-Wheeler Act, June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984)

Relevant Provisions: 

Trust periods; surplus land; sale of allotments; alienation; public domain allotments; devise and descent; tax exemption; tribal governments

Section 1: Prohibits further allotment of Indian lands on or after June 18, 1934.

Section 2: Extends, until otherwise directed by Congress, existing periods of trust and restrictions on alienation placed on Indian lands.

Section 3: Authorizes the secretary of the interior to restore to tribal ownership the remaining surplus lands of any Indian reservation opened to sale or other disposal provided that the rights or claims of any persons to any lands such on the date of the withdrawal shall not be affected. Contains several provisos pertaining to the Papago Reservation.

Section 4: Prohibits transfers of restricted Indian land, individually-owned or otherwise, except to an Indian tribe. This section also restricts an Indian individual’s testamentary disposition of restricted Indian land to the heirs of the devisee, to members of the tribe having jurisdiction over the land, or to the tribe itself.

Section 5: Authorizes the acquisition of lands, water rights, surface rights, and interests by the U.S. government for Indians and declares that purchased lands shall be tax exempt.

Section 8: Leaves scattered Indian homesteads on the public domain out of the scope of this act.

Section 13: States that:

The provisions of this Act shall not apply to any of the Territories, colonies, or insular possessions of the United States, except that sections 9, 10, 11, 12, and 16, shall apply to the Territory of Alaska: Provided, That Sections 2, 4, 7, 16, 17, and 18 of this Act shall not apply to the following-named Indian tribes, the members of such Indian tribes, together with members of other tribes affiliated with such named tribes located in the State of Oklahoma, as follows Cheyenne, Arapaho, Apache, Comanche, Kiowa, Caddo, Delaware, Wichita, Osage, Kaw, Otoe, Tonkawa, Pawnee, Ponca, Shawnee, Ottawa, Quapaw, Seneca, Wyandotte, Iowa, Sac and Fox, Kickapoo, Pottawatomi, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. Section 4 of this Act shall not apply to the Indians of the Klamath Reservation in Oregon.

Section 15:  Relates to the Sioux Nation.

Section 18:  Provides that the act as a whole should not apply to any reservation wherein a majority of tribal members voted against its application.

 

Three Fires Unity: The Anishnaabeg of the Lake Huron Borderlands
By Phil Bellfy

Winner of the North American Indian Prose Award, this first comprehensive cross-border history of the Anishnaabeg provides an engaging account of four hundred years of their life in the Lake Huron area, showing how they have been affected by European contact and trade. Three Fires Unity examines how shifting European politics and, later, the imposition of the Canada–United States border running through their homeland, affected them and continues to do so today. In looking at the cultural, social, and political aspects of this borderland contact, Phil Bellfy sheds light on how the Anishnaabeg were able to survive and even thrive over the centuries in this intensely contested region.

Michigan Collection: E 99 .C6 B426 2011

 

Atlas of the Great Lakes Indian History
Edited by Helen Hornbeck Tanner

In the late 1960s, Helen Tanner was selected to serve on the Michigan Indian Commission set up by Gov. George Romney. In 1976, she began work on the atlas project at Chicago's Newberry Library.

She and Newberry researchers pored over thousands of documents: letters, diaries, histories, biographies, travelers' descriptions, military dispatches, treaty journals, missionary observations, ships' logs, Indian agency reports, trade and commercial records, legislative reports, studies by anthropologists, geologists and archaeologists, judicial proceedings, and surveyors' notes.

She documented, step-by-step, the Great Lakes Indian diaspora, the loss of their lands and the murders of thousands of their people.

Michigan Collection: E78 .G7 A87 1987

 

Faith in Paper: the Ethnohistory and Litigation of Upper Great Lakes Indian Treaties
Edited by Charles Cleland

Faith in Paper examines the reinstitution of Indian treaty rights in the upper Great Lakes region during the last quarter of the twentieth century, focusing on the treaties and legal cases that together have awakened a new day in Native American sovereignty and established the place of Indian tribes in the modern political landscape. The book discusses the development of Indian treaties in historic time and their social and legal context; specific treaties regarding hunting, fishing, and gathering rights as well as reservation issues; and the impact of treaty litigation on the modern Indian and non-Indian communities of the Great Lakes region.

Michigan Collection: KF 8205 .C54 2011

 

Chippewa of Eastern Lower Michigan
By Helen Hornbeck Tanner

In 1965 she wrote Chippewa of Eastern Lower Michigan as part of a Plaintiffs Exhibit No. 106, Docket No. 18G457.  It is interesting to note that the first two pages are comprised of her curriculum vita. 

Michigan Collection: E 99 .C6 C47 v.5

 

Case Three

French in Michigan
By Russell M. Magnaghi

The colonial French served as explorers, soldiers, missionaries, fur traders, and colonists. Later, French priests and nuns were influential in promoting Catholicism in the state and in developing schools and hospitals. Father Gabriel Richard fled the violence of the French Revolution and became a prominent and influential citizen of the state as a U.S. Congressman and one of the founders of the University of Michigan. 

Michigan Collection: F 575 .F8 M333 2016

 

French Missionaries in the Great Lakes Region prior to 1800.

Isaac Jogues, b.1607-d.1646

Charles Raymbaut, 1642, Great Lakes Region

René Menard, 1660, Great Lakes Region

Claude Allouez, b.1620-d.1689

Claude Dablon, b.1618-d.1697

Louis André, 1665, Great Lakes Region

Gabriel Druillettes, b.1610-d.1681

Jacques Marquette, b.1637-d.1675

Constantin de l'Halle, arrived in Canada-d.1704

Dominic de la Marche

Cherubin Denieau

Armand de la Richardie, b.1686-d.1758

Hyacinth Pelifresne

Sulpitian Fathers: Calvarin, Mercier, and Thaumur de la Somce

Thomas Portier, d.1781

John Francis Hubert, Pre 1785

Michael Levadoux, b.1746-d.1815

Jean Dilhet, b.1753-d.1811

Gabriel Richard, b.1767-d.1832

 

The Ojibwe Journals of Edmund F. Ely
Edited by Theresa M. Schenck

Twenty-four-year-old Edmund F. Ely, a divinity student from Albany, New York, gave up his preparation for the ministry in 1833 to become a missionary and teacher among the Ojibwe of Lake Superior. During the next sixteen years, Ely lived, taught, and preached among the Ojibwe, keeping a journal of his day-to-day experiences as well as recording ethnographic information about the Ojibwe. From recording his frustrations over the Ojibwe's rejection of Christianity to describing hunting and fishing techniques he learned from his Ojibwe neighbors, Ely’s unique and rich record provides unprecedented insight into early nineteenth-century Ojibwe life and Ojibwe-missionary relations.

Michigan Collection E 99 .C6 E 43 2012 

 

Wah Sash Kah Moqua or Thirty-three Years among the Indians.​
By Mary A. Henderson Cabay Sagatoo

A narration by the author about her marriages and missionary work amongst Indians in the Saginaw area.

Michigan Collection: E99 .C6 S3 1897

 

Old Wing Mission: Cultural Interchange as Chronicled by George and Arvilla Smith in Their Work with Chief Wakazoo’s Ottawa Band on the West Michigan Frontier. ​
Legends of Michigan and the Old North West.

Edited by Robert P. Swierenga and William Van Appledorn

An intimate glimpse of Protestant pioneer life in early West Michigan.  Reverend Smith was a missionary teacher and preacher who had a strong desire to educate and evangelize the Native Americans. The Black Lake Ottawa Band of Chief Joseph Wakazoo (original spelling without the "u") came to the region each fall from their summer lodgings around Harbor Springs.  In 1839, Reverend Smith and Chief Wakazoo persuaded the U.S. Congress to allow Indian families to purchase land.  Wakazoo and Smith decided to locate their colony on 1,360 acres some three miles southeast of Black Lake (Lake Macatawa). The typical family owned 20 to 40 acres.  Initially, the colony numbered 29 families and 118 souls, but it grew to 300 souls. Wakazoo's band chose the name Old Wing Mission in honor of Wakazoo's brother, Chief Ning-wee-gon, The Wing.

Michigan Collection: E 99 .O9 0433 2008

 

Great Lakes Indian Accommodation and Resistance During the Early Reservation Years, 1850-1900​
By Edmund Jefferson Danziger

Utilizing eyewitness accounts from the 1800s and an innovative, cross-national approach, Danziger explores not only how Native Americans adapted to their new circumstances—including attempts at horse and plow agriculture, the impact of reservation allotment, and the response to Christian evangelists but also the ways in which the astute and resourceful Great Lakes chiefs, councils, and clan mothers fought to protect their homeland and preserve the identity of their people. Through their efforts, dreams of economic self-sufficiency and self-determination as well as the historic right to unimpeded border crossings from one end of the Great Lakes basin to the other were kept alive.​
Footprints : Stories of Native Americans in West Central Michigan.

Michigan Collection: E 98 .R4 B69 2016

 

Mapping in Michigan & the Great Lakes Region
Edited by David I. Macleod

American Indian mapmakers sought to give directions and convey cosmological meanings and political relationships; only gradually did they adopt the geometric framing and uniformity of European maps, which reflected a different set of cultural attitudes. Would-be colonial governors mapped to promote their dreams.  In describing how people produced and used maps, contributors tell a larger story of one region's peoples and cultures and of a nation's zeal for exploration.

Michigan Collection: GA 431 .M37 2997

 

West to Far Michigan: Settling the Lower Peninsula, 1815-1860
By Kenneth Lewis

An examination of the settlement process in Michigan between 1815 and 1860. This period marked the opening of Michigan to immigrants, saw the rise of commercial agriculture, and witnessed Michigan's integration into the larger national economy.  Employing numerous primary sources, West to Far Michigan traces changes and patterns of settlement crucial to documenting the large-scale development of southern Michigan as a region. Diaries, letters, memoirs, gazetteers, and legal documents are used to illustrate the transformation.

Michigan Collection: HD 211 .M5 L49 2002

 

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