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State Level Planning

The Emergency Management and Homeland Security Division coordinates a number of planning activities designed to improve the capabilities of Michigan State Government to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from natural, technological, and human-related disasters and emergencies.  Collectively, these activities help to save lives; protect public health, safety and property; and ensure that needed assistance (in the form of personnel, equipment, facilities, materials, supplies, and financial aid) is provided to local governments, businesses, and individuals and families when incidents occur that overwhelm local capabilities.  Following is a brief description of the major state-level functional planning activities performed by the Division, categorized by these basic "phases" of incident management:

 -  Mitigation
 -  Preparedness and Response
 -  Recovery

MITIGATION

The Division's major planning responsibilities related to hazard mitigation include the development and continuous maintenance of: 1) the Michigan Hazard Mitigation Plan; 2) detailed State Administrative Plans for three federal hazard mitigation grant programs; and 3) comprehensive mitigation grant program guidance that facilitates grant management / administration and planning activities at both the state and local government level.  In addition, the Division also spearheads and coordinates a statewide effort to develop hazard mitigation plans that cover all 83 Michigan counties and their local municipalities. 

Michigan Hazard Mitigation Plan. The federal Disaster Mitigation Act (DMA) of 2000 and Michigan Executive Order 1998-5 (issued July 29, 1998) both mandate that the Division develop and continuously maintain a hazard mitigation plan for the State of Michigan. That plan, called the Michigan Hazard Mitigation Plan (MHMP), was first completed in December 2004 and approved by FEMA as DMA-compliant in March 2005. The plan was updated in 2008 and 2011, following the required 3-year update schedule mandated by federal regulations.

The MHMP analyzes more than two dozen distinct types of natural, technological, and human-related hazards, and describes the hazard mitigation actions being implemented by the State of Michigan and encouraged in the numerous local hazard mitigation plans that cover most of Michigan's 83 counties. The MHMP has expanded over a lengthy period to encompass more than 900 pages. Some information about critical facilities needed to be suppressed from public release due to homeland security considerations, but the bulk of the information is accessible and welcomes public comment.

Download the Michigan Hazard Mitigation Plan

The MHMP has been developed in coordination with the Michigan Citizen-Community Emergency Response and Coordination Council (MCCERCC), which meets regularly and allows an opportunity for public attendance and comment, in compliance with Michigan's Open Meetings Act (1976 PA 267, 15.264). Questions or comments about the plan or about Michigan's hazard mitigation activities can be sent to Mike Sobocinski at sobocinskim@michigan.gov .

Key features of the updated 2011 edition of the MHMP include:

  • A detailed hazard analysis section more than 400 pages in length, covering all hazards known to be significant for Michigan's residents, economy, infrastructure, property, environment, and quality of life.
  • Descriptions and guidance that coordinate the MHMP with dozens of local hazard mitigation plans covering counties throughout Michigan.
  • Numerous maps that illustrate the ways that risks, needs, and circumstances differ throughout Michigan's many regions and counties.
  • A lengthy section of prioritized goals and objectives that describe a wide array of mitigation actions designed to address the hazard vulnerabilities identified in the risk assessment and capability assessment sections.
  • A lengthy section describing hazard mitigation funding sources, grants, and the historically-funded projects throughout Michigan.
  • A compendium of all previous mitigation plans and strategies developed for Federal Disasters.

The next major revision to the MHMP is scheduled for 2014, in keeping with federal requirements for a three-year update cycle. Citizen input is welcome and encouraged for the next update of the MHMP, as well as for the update of existing local hazard mitigation plans that cover most of Michigan's 83 counties (plus separate plans for selected municipalities).
 
State Administrative Plans.  The Division has significant mitigation planning responsibilities relating to the three hazard mitigation grant programs that it administers for FEMA.  Those programs include the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) - which is available only after a federal major disaster declaration under the Stafford Act, and the Flood Mitigation Assistance Program (FMAP) and Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program (PDMP), which make grants available on an annual basis.  The Division is required to develop and continuously maintain a State Administrative Plan for each program, outlining in detail how each program will be implemented and administered within Michigan.  These plans prescribe (and describe) the systems, processes, and forms that are used by the Division in soliciting, reviewing, prioritizing, and selecting project applications, and in managing / administering the program from initial implementation through final closeout.  These State Administrative Plans also provide the basis for the development of the guidance materials for the applicants for each program (see next section).

Guidance for Local Governments.  The Division has developed and continuously maintains three guidance documents to aid local governments in 1) applying for and managing grants under the three hazard mitigation grant programs described above; 2) developing hazard mitigation plans that cover Michigan's 83 counties and the local municipalities contained therein; and 3) funding the implementation of projects identified in the local hazard mitigation plans.  These guidance documents are:

- MSP/EMHSD Publication 207, "Hazard Mitigation Planning Workbook"
- MSP/EMHSD Publication 207A, "Funding Sources for Hazard Mitigation" (also incorporated as a section of the MHMP, as described above)
- MSP/EMHSD Publication 920, "Hazard Mitigation Grant Handbook"

Current versions of these publications are available for viewing and download from this web site, and are also available in hardcopy or on CD by contacting the MSP/EMHSD directly.

Local Hazard Mitigation Plans.  The Division is spearheading and coordinating a statewide effort to develop federally approved, DMA 2000 compliant hazard mitigation plans covering all 83 Michigan counties and all major municipalities.  This monumental planning effort, which began in 2003, will be substantially completed in 2007.  (Note: At that time, some of the plans developed early in the process will need to be revised in accordance with the FEMA required plan update schedule for DMA 2000 plans.)

Development of these local mitigation plans is not only good emergency management practice and public policy, but more importantly will help ensure that local jurisdictions and the State of Michigan remain eligible for and can utilize all available federal hazard mitigation grant funding.  (Under the federal DMA 2000, all applicants for federal hazard mitigation grants must have an approved mitigation plan in place prior to being allocated funds.)  This statewide mitigation planning initiative is helping to ensure that those plans are developed and approved for all Michigan communities, thereby allowing the State to utilize the greatest amount of federal grant support for hazard mitigation measures.

The Division is utilizing an innovative planning approach in this project that includes partnerships with regional planning commissions, local planning departments, the MSU Cooperative Extension Service, local emergency management agencies, colleges and universities, and private consultants.  Each plan is being developed using a different partnership arrangement that has been customized to the needs of the individual community.  The use of regional planning commissions and local planning agencies, in particular, helps further the State's goal of integrating hazard mitigation considerations into the existing land use / comprehensive planning efforts of local communities in Michigan.

As of August 2006, a total of 48 local mitigation plans had been approved and certified by FEMA as being compliant with the federal DMA 2000.  Many other local plans are nearing completion and should be ready for state review and federal review / certification in the coming months.  The ultimate goal is to have most if not all local mitigation plans completed by the end of 2007.

PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE

The Division is responsible for a number of planning activities aimed at enhancing the State's preparedness for and response to disasters, emergencies, and threats to our homeland.  Primary among these activities are: 1) the Michigan Emergency Management Plan; 2) support plans for such key functions as disaster debris management and disaster donations management; 3) the Michigan Hazard Analysis; and 4) planning guidance that facilitates the development of local Emergency Operations Plans and other support plans and procedures for state agencies, local governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private industry. 

Michigan Emergency Management Plan (MEMP).  Probably the most visible product of those planning activities is the Michigan Emergency Management Plan, the comprehensive, all-hazard plan that coordinates the emergency management and homeland security activities of Michigan State Government.  The MEMP is structured around eight Emergency Support Functions (ESFs) and 22 hazard-specific procedures sections that address the full range of natural, technological, and human-related disasters and emergencies - including weapons of mass destruction attacks and other terrorism threats.  It incorporates the essential provisions of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and National Response Plan (NRP) developed by the federal Department of Homeland Security.  Although the MEMP addresses all phases of incident management, it is specifically oriented toward preparedness and response activities.  The MEMP is a policy document developed and maintained by the Division, and signed by the Governor and the State Director of Emergency Management and Homeland Security (Director, Department of State Police) upon review and concurrence.  The Division also maintains an Executive Summary to the MEMP which provides a concise overview of the primary concepts, organizational structures, and task assignments found in the larger MEMP.
 
Key Support Plans to the MEMP.  The MEMP is supported by a variety of plans and procedures that provide a conceptual and operational framework for critical response functions such as disaster debris management, disaster donations management, disaster logistics management, mass fatality management, and continuity of government, to name just a few.  Many of these plans are developed and maintained by the Division, with the assistance of the involved state agencies.  Many others are developed and maintained by the state agency (or agencies) charged with the responsibility for the particular critical function.  For example, the Michigan Mass Fatality Management Plan is developed and maintained by the Michigan Department of Community Health, the Michigan Gasoline Shortage Response Plan is developed and maintained by the Michigan Public Service Commission, and so on.  These support plans and procedures provide the operational detail and actual implementation mechanisms for the critical response functions assigned to specific agencies in the overarching MEMP document.  


Michigan Hazard Analysis.  The foundation for the State's emergency planning activities is the Michigan Hazard Analysis, which provides a comprehensive study of the major hazards that have confronted the state, as well as those that have the potential to occur.  Emergency planning undertaken at the state level is based on the hazards identified in this document.  Thirty (30) natural, technological, and human-related hazards (see list below) are examined in detail, with descriptive narrative and hazard maps provided to identify the overall potential threat to Michigan communities.  For each hazard, the following information is provided: 1) an overview of the hazard; 2) a listing of the significant disastrous incidents that have occurred as a result of the hazard; 3) programs and initiatives in place to address the negative consequences of the hazard; and 4) an analysis of the impacts of the hazard on the citizens and communities of Michigan.  Some of the hazards are discussed in national or international context, in recognition that in many cases what happens across the United States and around the world has significant bearing on Michigan. 

The following hazards are addressed in the Michigan Hazard Analysis:

  • Civil Disturbances
  • Drought
  • Earthquakes
  • Energy Emergencies
  • Extreme Temperatures
  • Scrap Tire Fires
  • Structural Fires
  • Wildfires
  • Dam Failures
  • Riverine Flooding
  • Great Lakes Shoreline Flooding
  • Fog
  • Hazardous Material Incidents
  • Infrastructure Failures
  • Invasive Species
  • Nuclear Attack
  • Nuclear Power Plant Accidents
  • Oil / Gas Well Accidents
  • Petroleum / Gas Pipeline Accidents
  • Public Health Emergencies
  • Sabotage / Terrorism
  • Subsidence
  • Hail
  • Lightning
  • Severe Winds
  • Tornadoes
  • Transportation Accidents
  • Ice / Sleet Storms
  • Snowstorms

Statewide Planning Guidance.  The Division develops and maintains an extensive series of guidance documents to provide vital emergency planning information and assistance to state agencies, local governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private industry.  These documents help facilitate the development statewide of Emergency Operations Plans as well as supporting plans and procedures for such critical functions as damage assessment; public information dissemination; warning, evacuation, and in-place sheltering; and site-specific hazardous material incident response, to name just a few.  Typically, the documents contain both technical information and suggested language and a format to aid in developing the plan or procedure.  These guidance documents are distributed statewide to emergency management audiences and are also available on this web site for viewing and downloading.

RECOVERY

Currently, the Division's primary planning activities related to disaster recovery include the development and continuous maintenance of: 1) damage / incident assessment guidance; 2) applicant guidance for the federal Public Assistance Grant Program (PAGP); 3) a detailed State Administrative Plan for the PAGP; and 4) the Michigan Continuity of Government (COG) Plan and planning guidance to facilitate the development of counterpart COG plans at the local and regional levels.  Future recovery planning efforts will likely include the development of a disaster temporary housing and mass care plan, and an enhanced resource management system.  (Note: When the federal Stafford Act was amended in 2000 by the Disaster Mitigation Act, management of the federal Individual Assistance programs for temporary housing and general recovery aid were transferred from the State back to FEMA.  At that point, the state planning activities related to those recovery programs ceased and the planning documents were rescinded.)

Statewide Damage Assessment System / Support Procedures.  The Division develops and maintains detailed guidance to aid local jurisdictions and state agencies in the timely collection, compilation, analysis, display, and reporting of damage and incident assessment information subsequent to a disaster, emergency, or other threat to the homeland.  This guidance is contained in MSP/EMHSD Publication 901, "Damage Assessment Handbook."  This document contains all of the reporting forms, formats, and processes required to facilitate the transmittal of damage / incident assessment information to the Division via the statewide web-based information management system called "E Team."  The E-Team system allows secure, online data transmission from local jurisdictions, state agencies, and certain nongovernmental organizations and private industry entities, directly to the State Emergency Operations Center (SEOC).  The incoming data is linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) and the affected areas and structures are electronically mapped, creating highly accurate, real-time assessment reports that aid SEOC staff in making key response and recovery decisions.

The Division also develops and maintains the Michigan Rapid Impact Assessment Team (MRIAT), a 40-person team of state agency subject matter experts that can provide supplemental damage assessment assistance to communities in need.  The MRIAT can be activated to work in partnership with affected local governmental assessment forces to assess the nature, scope, magnitude, extent of damage, and expected duration of natural, technological, or human-related disasters and emergencies - including a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) attack or other act of terrorism.  The Division develops and maintains the Team's primary guidance handbook, MSP/EMHSD Publication 105, "MRIAT Disaster Assignments and Standard Operating Procedures."  This handbook supports and is a companion document to MSP/EMHSD Publication 901, "Damage Assessment Handbook" (described above).  The MRIAT Handbook contains all of the same reporting forms, formats, and processes found in the Damage Assessment Handbook, but also includes detailed operational information specific to the MRIAT. 

Public Assistance Grant Program Applicant Handbook.  The Division develops and maintains program-specific guidance that enables local governments and other eligible entities to apply for and use federal Public Assistance Grant Program (PAGP) funds subsequent to a federal major disaster declaration under the Stafford Act.  This guidance document, MSP/EMHSD Publication 903, "Public Assistance Grant Program Applicant Handbook," provides a complete overview of the PAGP and also provides potential applicants with the procedural guidance necessary to: 1) assess damage and impact in order to determine eligibility for PAGP assistance; 2) apply for the assistance for which they are eligible; and 3) once obtained, to properly manage and administer assistance funds in accordance with federal and state law and program intent.  PAGP funds can be used to aid in the repair, restoration, or replacement of public (and certain private nonprofit) facilities, infrastructure, and services which are damaged or destroyed by a disaster.  Grants are provided on a 75% federal share, 25% nonfederal share basis. 

Public Assistance Grant Program State Administrative Plan.  As Michigan's steward agency for the federal PAGP, the Division is required to develop and continuously maintain a detailed State Administrative Plan for the PAGP that outlines how the program will be implemented and administered within Michigan.  Similar in content and format to the State Administrative Plans for the hazard mitigation grant programs described above, the plan prescribes (and describes) the system, processes, and forms that are used by the Division in soliciting, reviewing, prioritizing, and approving project applications for PAGP funding.  The PAGP State Administrative Plan also describes the processes that will be followed in managing / administering the program (in concert with FEMA) from initial implementation through final closeout.  The PAGP State Administrative Plan is a companion document to and is consistent with the PAGP Applicant Handbook described above.

(Note: In addition to the federal PAGP, the Division also administers a state-level program that can reimburse local communities for extraordinary public assistance-type expenditures incurred in order to protect public health, safety and property.  This funding, which is only available in the absence of federal PAGP assistance, is provided under Section 19 of the Michigan Emergency Management Act - 390 PA 1976, as amended. The Division implements this program, on behalf of the Governor, in accordance with established administrative procedures.  The Division is responsible for developing and maintaining those procedures, and for providing appropriate guidance materials for Section 19 assistance in its various emergency planning documents such as the Michigan Emergency Management Plan and the Damage Assessment Handbook.)

Michigan Continuity of Government Plan / Guidance for Local Governments.  The Division is currently developing the Michigan Continuity of Government (COG) Plan as a support plan to the overarching Michigan Emergency Management Plan.  When completed, the Michigan COG Plan will build and expand upon the ongoing Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP) efforts of Michigan's principal state agencies - a planning initiative spearheaded by the Michigan Department of Management and Budget.  The COOP effort is focusing on the continuance of essential state agency functions to protect the public health, safety, and welfare.  The goal of the COOP effort is the development of business continuity plans for each Michigan state agency.

The Michigan COG Plan will build upon the COOP initiative and the Michigan Emergency Management Plan and will focus on the continuance of constitutional governance in time of catastrophic disaster or emergency, or other threats to the homeland.  The Michigan COG Plan will encompass all three branches of state government and will address such important issues as lines of succession for key officials, alternate facilities / locations, vital records protection, delegations of authority, and the continuation of elections and judicial / legislative processes.