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Module 3b: Hazard Prevention and Control

Overview:

Effective management actively establishes procedures for timely identification, correction or control of hazards.

Once hazards and potential hazards are recognized, a hazard prevention and control program can be designed.  This consists
of implementing a hierarchy of controls.   These controls provide a systematic way to determine the most effective feasible
method to reduce the risk associated with a hazard. 

Application of the hierarchy of controls takes into account the nature and extent of the risks being controlled, the degree of
risk reduction desired, the requirements of applicable federal and state standards, recognized best practices in industry,
available technology, cost effectiveness, and internal organization standards.  Often a combination of controls is most effective.
When controlling a hazard, first consider methods to eliminate the hazard or substitute a less hazardous method or process. 
If this is not feasible, engineering controls such as machine guards and ventilation systems should be considered.  This process
continues down the hierarchy until the highest-level feasible control is found.

Hierarchy of Controls:

Establish and implement processes to identify and take appropriate steps to prevent and control potential risks associated
with new processes or operations at the design stage and changes to its existing operations, products, services or suppliers. 
The design of machines, equipment, and facilities should take human factors (that is, the characteristics and capabilities of
humans) into account.  For example, warning lights should be designed to attract attention, based on the ability of the
human eye to detect and respond to light at different frequencies.  Workstations should be designed to minimize awkward
postures and undue force.
 
Other areas to establish and implement controls:

Topic 2: Safety and Health Inspection

When conducting a safety and health inspection, observe the following:

To ensure that you conduct the best possible inspections:

On inspections reports be sure to include:

Follow-up to implement needed corrections must be planned as a part of the self-inspection process.  During follow-up,
you may discover additional areas of concern that should be addressed.  You may also need to develop a written report
and recommendations to address concerns that require authorization or approval from upper management.  Your report
may include recommendations for:

Activities: 

Safety and Health Inspection
Checklists remind us of what to look for and provide a place to record observations.  After time, we use them without
thinking about what we’re seeing.  In this activity, you will have a chance to see another person conduct a safety or health
inspection in your work area – and find out what he/she sees that you may be missing.

Tools

Workplace HazCom Inspection
As a means to keep employees informed of hazardous materials, this inspection activity provides a good way for employees
to refresh their knowledge about the hazardous chemicals that they use.

Tool

Topic 3: Emergency Evacuation Drill

Because we understand what to do in the event of an emergency, we seldom practice what to do.  The result is that if an
emergency occurs, we may not do the right thing—we won’t remember to activate the fire alarm, or where we’re supposed
to regroup after an evacuation, or any of the important details.  The ability to understand how to do something is not the same
as the ability to do it.

Activity

Practice Drill

On a designated day, supervisors review evacuation procedures with their people, and locations outside the building where
evacuees should regroup.  Review the entire facility plan with employees in case a fire breaks out when they are in another
area of the building.  Finally, conduct an actual drill when everyone evacuates the company and is accounted for in the
designated outside areas.

Tool

Safety and Health Work Practices and Rules

Work practices and rules are essential for any organization because they prescribe the accepted behavior and practices the
employer expects of employees.  Ask employees for their input in composing rules and practices. The following examples
can be considered for safe work practice and rule development:

Activities

Review Accident

List of Violations

Tool