Public Library Director's Manual
This manual is intended as a "go-to" resource for Michigan public library directors. This manual is updated regularly to provide up-to-date information on the various duties of directorship and how to accomplish them successfully.
As part of the Library of Michigan’s library collection, we purchase library science materials for library staff around the state to use. It is a circulating “Librarian’s Library” of library science materials available to library staff from all library types. The collection is wide-ranging and includes materials for public, academic and school libraries. Anyone can borrow the materials through MeLCat or interlibrary loan. To find materials, search the Library of Michigan's catalog, ANSWER, by topic, or browse the Library Science Collection (#3 in the list). If you don’t find what you need, please contact us with a suggestion for us to purchase.
Library Science Collection Overview
Library Science Collection
- Continuing Education Introduction
LM holds numerous regularly scheduled and special continuing education opportunities. These events occur both in-person and online. For more information, visit LM’s Continuing Education page.
Beginning Workshop is an annual 3-day event held each spring geared toward library staff without a master’s degree in Library Science or those with the degree, but with little or no library experience. Many library systems in Michigan require attendance for new library staff. Beginning Workshop is also a requirement to obtain Level 3 or Level 4 Library of Michigan certification.
This is a biennial conference focused toward libraries serving populations of 25,000 or fewer but is welcome to all. This conference is heavily subsidized to provide small and rural library staff with the best opportunity to attend.
We've archived webinars provided by Library of Michigan staff on a variety of topics. These are available to you 24/7 for your convenience.
Dozens of online sessions to help you gain the knowledge, skills and abilities to move your library forward and connect with your community.
Webjunction provides online training on a variety of library-related topics. Certificates of completion are provided with self-paced courses and webinar archives are available. Webjunction is made possible in part by the Institute of Museum and Library Services.
Since 1835, Michigan's Constitution has contained a provision stating income from penal fines shall be used for the support of Public Libraries. County treasurers receive and distribute penal fine income.
LM's Continuing Education Stipend Program helps by providing financial support for library staff continuing education. Michigan public, academic and school library staff are eligible to apply for continuing education stipends. Those awarded stipends will have their library reimbursed a fixed amount based on the location and type of event attended after all documents have been submitted.
- State Aid & the Annual Report
State Aid for Public Libraries
State aid is paid to public libraries each year under an appropriation of general funds determined by Michigan Legislation. In 2019 $12,067,700, a per capita amount of $0.39689475.
Video: Library State Aid
Annual Report/State Aid Application
Each year about 98% of Michigan’s public libraries provide library data while participating in the Annual Report/State Aid Application. The reporting period runs from October 1st to February 1st and libraries interested in receiving state aid must submit their applications within this timeframe. All Michigan public library directors are granted an account to access the LibPAS application.
Video: State Aid Application
This highly competitive multi-year grant program provides Michigan public, academic and school libraries the opportunity to develop innovative programs or services that have the potential to develop into sustainable regional or statewide programs that can benefit a broad range of libraries. Programs with strong partnerships between libraries, and/or local community groups or agencies have greater community support, so partnerships are a requirement for this grant. In the past, the Library of Michigan has funded two to four projects in a grant cycle.
The priorities for the grant program are to
- Provide funding for innovative library services and programs,
- Create the opportunity to develop sustainable new regional or statewide programs, and
- Develop partnerships among libraries and/or between libraries and local community agencies.
The application is two stage and includes a proposal, a detailed budget, and partner agreements. The possible grant periods are from one to three years (Oct.-Sept.) and funding is for $50,000 to $225,000 per year up to a possible total of $500,000.
Timeline: Applications are submitted in May, reviewed over the summer, and grants are awarded in early fall for projects that start on October 1st.
Collaborative Library Services Grant site
Collaborative Library Services grant program general information packet
Current grantees – Grant Awards section
As part of the Library of Michigan’s efforts to provide statewide services to libraries and their communities, we have two grant programs. The first is the Collaborative Library Services Grant program, which provides funds to develop innovative community partnership projects that have the potential to develop into regional or statewide programs. The second is the Public Library Services grant program, which provides funds for summer public library programming. The summer programs can be for technology, children & youth, or literacy.
Library Services & Technology Act Funding
The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) provides funding for libraries through the Museum and Library Services Act, also known as the Library Services & Technology Act (LSTA). The funds are distributed through state libraries and are for use in providing statewide services for public, academic and school libraries. The funding for 2018 is $4.3 million. The annual amount depends on the state funding match and IMLS’s annual budget.
As part of the requirements for funding, the Library of Michigan has a Five-Year Plan for service that, once approved by IMLS, acts as a legal guide for how the annual funding allotment is used. The plan must align with the purposes and priorities of the LSTA legislation. Every five years, the Library of Michigan engages the Michigan library community to evaluate the impact of the projects from the previous five-year plan and to develop the next five-year plan.
LSTA Purposes & Priorities
LSTA funds are used to support the following broad priorities from the Museum and Library Services Act, excerpted here:
- expanding services for learning and access to information ... ;
- establishing or enhancing electronic and other linkages and improved coordination among and between libraries ... ;
- providing training and professional development, including continuing education, to enhance the skills of the current library workforce ... ;
- developing public and private partnerships with other agencies and community-based organizations;
- targeting library services to individuals of diverse geographic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds, to individuals with disabilities, and to individuals with limited functional literacy or information skills;
- developing library services that provide all users access to information ...
Five-Year Plan 2017-2022
The five-year plan includes goals for the use of the funding. The current five-year plan goals are:
- Michigan residents will have equal access to information resources in various formats for lifelong learning.
- Michigan residents will have access to current services and training support through their libraries.
- Michigan libraries will continue to support their communities through collective impact initiatives and community engagement.
- Michigan residents will be able to use Michigan’s historical and cultural collections for lifelong learning.
Using LSTA Funds in Michigan
To achieve the five-year plan goals, we use LSTA funding on a range of projects with the overall intent of providing equitable resources to libraries and Michigan residents and training for library staff. This includes the Michigan eLibrary databases, MeLCat support, Summer Reading materials, early literacy training, WebJunction, United for Libraries, Ploud, various workshops, continuing education stipends for library staff, our Library Science Collection, and our grant programs. Our annual report lists the specific projects each year.
Institute of Museum and Library Services
Library of Michigan LSTA Overview
Five-Year Plan for Michigan, October 2017 – September 2022
Library Service & Technology Act Michigan Report for 2017
The Library of Michigan maintains a collection of public library data covering 22 years of reported data available to Library Directors and staff. Using the custom reporting tools available in the LibPAS software library staff can create reports using the data elements collected on the Annual Report. A collection of the past 5 years data is also available to the public. The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) also has a collection containing the national library data known as the Public Libraries Survey (PLS) covering the past 25 years.
The Copyright Act of 1976, 17 USC section 101, et seq, governs, for the United States, how literary, artistic, phonographic, photographic, musical, film, digital, and other creative works may be utilized by people other than the creators of those works. While the law provides a broad safe harbor against prosecution for uses that are deemed “Fair Use,” it should be noted that “Fair Use” requires an analysis of the planned use against a set of four criteria – and a non-profit, “educational” use is not always, by itself, a Fair Use.
Four Prong Test of Fair Use:
- the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
- the nature of the copyrighted work;
- the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
- the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
Section 108 Library Uses –
17 USC 108 is the section of the Copyright Act that provides libraries with special permissions to lend and photocopy works for distribution to the public and to provide patrons with the ability to copy materials in the library. Part of section 108 is the requirement that libraries place specific notice language on public copiers, faxes, printers, and scanners:
(i.e. "Notice: The copyright law of the United States (Title 17 U.S. Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. The person using this equipment is liable for any infringement.” From RUSA (Reference & User Services division of ALA)
ALA Copyright/Fair Use LibGuide/Research Guide
ALA Fair Use Evaluator Index & Table of Contents
ALA Issues and Advocacy – Copyright Tools
Columbia University Copyright Advisory Service, Fair Use Checklist
United States Copyright Office. More Information on Fair Use
Section 108 Explanation via Copyright Crash Course
Copyright Office Circular 21 “Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Libraries and Educators
The Open Meetings Act (OMA), 1976 PA 267, MCL 15.261 et.seq. is Michigan’s version of what many states call “Law in the Sunshine” acts. It is a variation of Freedom of Information Acts in that the intent of the OMA is government transparency. The OMA specifies that any decision or determination of a public body must be accomplished in a “public meeting.”
It also mandates that any meeting of a public body where a majority or “quorum” of members are present constitutes a “public meeting.”
Under the act, the occurrences of “public meetings” must comply with certain criteria, including:
- Meeting details (when, where) must be noticed in an area “assured to provide access to the notice.”(Such as on the Library Circ desk, front door, Facebook page and website)
- The nature of the meeting determines the timing of the notice.
- Meeting must be open to the public.
- Agenda must include an opportunity for public comment
- Meeting minutes must be taken and made available to the public.
- In a public meeting, members of the public may record and/or video proceedings at will.
Michigan Open Meetings Handbook- A handy reference on compliance with the Open Meetings
Library of Michigan Library Law page (see “Open Meetings Act” heading)
Michigan Municipal League, Handbook for Municipal Officials, Appendix 3, Overview of the Open Meetings Act
- Libraries and the First Amendment
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."
Freedom of speech is as much about access as it is about expression. The American Library Association (ALA), affirms libraries as unbiased, non-partisan forums where all patrons should have the right to read without fear of retribution or censure. Over the years, courts have affirmed that First Amendment rights apply to public meeting rooms, political canvassing and even (to a certain extent), pornography.
Public Meeting Rooms - Under the First Amendment, Public Libraries are considered a "Limited Public Forum." Libraries, as public spaces, cannot prevent people from exercising their First Amendment Rights. However, the Library CAN control Time Place and Manner. In other words, a Public Library can implement policies that dictate how, when and where the expressions occur.
These policies and procedures MUST be content neutral, which means that Libraries cannot limit expression according to the topic or subject of the expression. For example, if a library mandates that a meeting room can only be used for non-commercial use (no sales or business use), and they refuse use to a local crafter who wants to sell articles, then they can't allow Girl Scouts to use the room to sell cookies.
Political Canvassing/Petitioning – Of all Free Speech rights, political speech is the most protected. The Framers of the Constitution were particularly concerned about political speech and the ability to criticize the government. Public Libraries, as limited public forums, CAN limit political canvassing to particular spaces, and can require that canvassers or petition gatherers refrain from obstructing access to the library entrances and exits, as well as restrict them from interfering with the normal business of the library. However, libraries cannot banish these practices from library property. Libraries must also treat all canvassers, protesters, petitioners, etc, the same regardless of the topic or subject of their political activities.
ALA General Library Policy Development LibGuides page
ALA Intellectual Freedom - Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights - Restricted Access to Materials
ALA Intellectual freedom – Library Meeting Rooms and Displays
Library of Michigan information sheet on Library displays
Public Libraries Online – Ethics of Library Meeting Rooms
ACLU of Michigan – Petitioning rights
- Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
The Freedom of Information Act (1976 PA 442, MCL 15.231, et.seq.) functions as a counterpart to the Open Meetings Act. Instead of focusing on meetings and activities of government, FOIA focuses on documents and information. FOIA is also rooted firmly around the idea that government activities should be transparent – that in a nation where governance is “of the people, by the people and for the people,” people should have complete access to the documents and work product of government.
Michigan’s FOIA law mirrors the Federal FOIA. All materials that are “created, owned, used, possessed or retained by a public entity in the performance of an official function” (MCL 15.232(e)) must be available to the public upon request.
Under FOIA in Michigan, requests must be written, and a public entity may charge for provision of documents or copies if the public entity has an appropriate FOIA policy readily available to the public in either a written or electronic form.
Michigan FOIA Handbook – Handy overview by the Michigan Attorney General’s office
Guide to FOIA Statutory Exemptions - Michigan Municipal Attorney Association
FOIA FAQS – Michigan Attorney General Office
Michigan Municipal League-Handbook for Municipal Officials – Appendix 4 – Overview of the Freedom of Information Act, pp118.
- Intellectual Freedom
Intellectual Freedom – Collection Development and Challenges – The most common First Amendment issue many libraries face is opposition to particular titles or types of materials. Libraries should have thoughtful, well compiled written policies and procedures for how to respond when library materials are challenged. The American Library Association has useful resources and assistance for libraries facing materials challenges.
Intellectual freedom – Restriction of Materials. The ALA’s Library Bill of Rights supports the ability of patrons to access any materials they wish, regardless of age or reading level. Libraries are encouraged to balance open access with applicable Federal, State & local laws (for example, some Federal programs require filtering of computers), with the needs of their communities.
Policies guide the daily operation of the library and the decision-making of the library director and staff. Essentially, policies provide the framework for library operations and services. Carefully developed policies can help ensure high-quality library service that provides for community needs, wise use of library resources, and fair treatment of library staff and library users. Library boards should approve policies to cover many issues, including a patron code of conduct, the services offered by the library (such as the hours the library is open to the public), circulation of materials, selection of books and other resources, confidentiality of patron records, and use of electronic resources. The library personnel policy and the board bylaws are two essential statements of policy relating to library and library board internal operations.
The Michigan eLibrary, MeL, is a statewide service administered by the Library of Michigan, an agency of the Michigan Department of Education. The Library of Michigan contracts with the Midwest Collaborative for Library Services (MCLS) to provide support and training for the components of MeL and partners with a number of organizations and institutions to provide MeL services. A starting point for Michigan residents and libraries of all types, MeL offers a rich set of information resources for a wide range of ages and skill levels. MeL is made possible in part by the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Additional funding is provided by the State of Michigan and the Library of Michigan Foundation.
MeLCat Statewide Catalog is the centralized union catalog and resource sharing service created to share materials among all types of libraries in Michigan, regardless of the local circulation system they use. MeLCat contains up-to-date holdings from all participating libraries. While the ability to search MeLCat is open to everyone, only eligible patrons from participating libraries may request materials to be delivered to their home libraries. MeLCat does not replace a local integrated library system.
- Library participation is voluntary
- Holdings are updated frequently
- Libraries’ holdings for the same title are brought together
- Records for statewide licensed resources are included (EBSCO eBooks and full-text journals)
- New libraries are added regularly. If your library would like to join MeLCat visit MCLS’ Joining MeLCat webpage.
MeLCat Training and Support
MCLS regularly offers training and any library staff involved in MeLCat may sign up for classes using the online registration system. Most MeLCat classes are free.
Upcoming MeLCat Workshops
MeLCat Advisory Committee
Comprised of representatives from all library types across the state, the MeLCat Advisory Committee advises the State Librarian on policies for the statewide catalog and resource-sharing system. Specific areas of focus include database standards, MeLCat system evaluation, borrowing and lending policies and best practices.
With over 65 databases covering topics such as general interest (including auto repair and family history/genealogy to newspapers and reader’s advisory), PreK-12 educational resources, allied health, business, reference eBooks and test prep and workforce skills building, MeL eResources are a one-stop-shop for high quality, vetted, reliable information at no cost to users. Access is available via GeoIP and direct URLs.
MeL Databases Listing
MeL Databases Help
MeL IP Reporting Form
MeL Direct URLs
MeL eResource Training and Support
MCLS regularly offers free training materials ranging from PDF documentation, short videos and webinars to in-person training sessions. Additionally, MeL Engagement Specialists for the education and library communities provide support to incorporate MeL resources into the state’s PreK-12 curriculum and local library services.
- Professional Organizations for Public Library Directors
Association for Rural & Small Libraries (ARSL)
The Association for Rural & Small Libraries, Inc. is a network of persons throughout the country dedicated to the positive growth and development of libraries. ARSL believes in the value of rural and small libraries and strives to create resources and services that address national, state, and local priorities for libraries situated in rural communities.
Friends of Michigan Public Libraries (FOML)
The mission of the Friends of Michigan Libraries “is to support the activities of local Michigan libraries and to be advocates for libraries at the state level. FOML will serve as clearinghouse and information center for all Friends groups in the State of Michigan by planning meetings to exchange ideas, by supporting a newsletter to go to member groups, and by offering workshops and speakers to help advance the goals of Friends working with libraries, whether as program planners, as volunteers, as advocates of library legislation, or as a source of financial contributions and support.”
United for Libraries
United for Libraries (UFL) is the division of the American Libraries Association (ALA) that advocates for and provides information about Friends Groups and Library Trustees/Boards of Directors. On the UFL site, users can find an array of tools designed to assist these groups in understanding and performing their roles for public libraries. Some information on the site is free to the public, but much of the content (such as videos and sample documents) is only accessible by members of this division. The Library of Michigan provides access to these resources to all Michigan Libraries through an annual Statewide Membership paid for with LSTA funds. This membership provides a username and password which may be used by any Michigan Library Friend group, Trustee or library employee to access the site and its information. To obtain the username and password, contact the Library of Michigan.
- Quality Services Audit Checklist (QSAC)
QSAC is a voluntary management standards program that assists public libraries by setting benchmarks for Governance & Administration, Human Resources, Services, Collection Development, Technology, Facilities & Equipment and Public Relations. The Library of Michigan recognizes public libraries as they achieve each level. Libraries can be certified at the Essential, Enhanced and Excellent levels on a three-year update and renewal schedule to ensure the measures and libraries stay on top of quality service. LM works with volunteer librarians every three years to revise the measures based on participating libraries' experiences and new trends in library services, programs and technology.
- Library Staff Certification
The Library of Michigan staff certification program offers recognized certificates of achievement based on education and experience, and it supports one of the statutory requirements for public libraries to qualify for state aid grant funds. There are 4 levels of certification. The levels required for the library director and staff are based on the size of the library’s total served population. The application can be found on the Library of Michigan’s Library Staff Certification page.
Video: Library Staff Certification
Just over 20 years old, E-Rate allows K-12 institutions and public libraries to receive discounts on their Internet service bills and other costs such as managed internal broadband services and basic maintenance of internal connections. This is for equipment like switches and routers and products for managing wi-fi networks. The discount rate, which can be as high as 90%, is based on the number of community school children eligible for the National School Lunch Program.
Over the past two years Michigan has seen an increase of 39% in the total amount requested by libraries. E-Rate is vitally important for libraries and has a direct impact on service for Michigan residents. 4.3 million dollars were committed to hundreds of Michigan libraries last year. E-Rate helps to level the playing field for Michiganders who use library services to access the Internet.
Libraries can apply on their own or as part of a consortium of other libraries, or a consortium of schools and libraries. A little less than half of Michigan libraries who apply for E-Rate do so with the benefit of a consortium application. Three of the four large consortium applications are handled by co-operative staff. There are a few school/library consortium applications and we expect that number to grow as the Michigan State Education Network (Mi-SEN) lights up a fiber infrastructure across all schools in the state using E-Rate dollars. That network will be available to libraries working with their local ISD tech directors. Many libraries rely on a consultant to navigate the program.
Ploud (Public Libraries in the Cloud) is a feature-rich and easy to use library-specific website template and hosting solution. Over 100 libraries in Michigan use Ploud.
- It includes an advanced calendar, event registration software, carousels, the ability to use drag and drop elements to create your own page layouts, Google mapping for your library location, and more.
- There is a minimal price tag for libraries. In 2017 and 2018, the cost to each library was $200. 55% of the total cost each year is paid for with Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) dollars.
- The vendor maintains a searchable, online repository of articles to assist you in operating your site and staffs a year-round help desk reachable online or by phone.
- The Library of Michigan conducts regional, in-person training in the fall of most years.
- Ploud provides an easy-to-learn, easy-to-update website template with four different themes and multiple color schemes. It is designed for libraries without specialized technology staff but is easily expandable. Most libraries who use Ploud are class 1-3 but Michigan has several larger library systems that make good use of Ploud.
- The technology "heavy lifting" of security and product updates is done by the vendor, Enfold Systems.
- You can find more about Ploud, including the Michigan libraries that use this product, at http://www.michlibrary.org/.
The LM is currently accepting new libraries into the program. Contact Sonya Schryer Norris at email@example.com for more information.
- Youth Services Resources
Video: Youth Services Introduction
Summer Reading Program
To support Summer Reading, the Library of Michigan is a member of the Collaborative Summer Library Program (CSLP), a consortium of states that began in 1987, to empower libraries to foster community. CSLP collaborates with libraries to create an inclusive literacy-based program that is enjoyable for all ages, provide a reproducible program with a unified theme, share resources and offer professional support. Find additional information on the Library of Michigan’s Summer Reading Program website. Membership in Michigan is funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services.
The Library of Michigan also offers Wandoo Reader software for public libraries in Michigan, available through the summer of 2021. Access for Michigan libraries is funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Online support from Demco is offered as well as monthly webinars.
Video: Wandoo Reader