Equine Reportable Diseases in Michigan, including EIA, EEE, EHV & WNV
Click to learn about all the Equine Reportable Diseases in the State of Michigan.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis
As of September 20, the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) has identified two cases of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE).
On September 16, Michigan's second case of EEE was identified in a 12-year-old, Quarter Horse mare in Menominee County. The horse had a fever, was not eating or drinking, and was leaning against walls. The unvaccinated mare later died.
On September 15, 2016, MDARD was notified that a four month old Standardbred filly in Clare County tested positive for EEE. The filly had developed a sudden fever, was staggering and eventually unable to rise. The filly died. The filly and its mother were not vaccinated against EEE.
Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis, also known as "sleeping sickness," is caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. Horses, people, birds, and a variety of small mammals can contract this disease from a mosquito bite. Mosquitoes spread the virus among wild birds. These birds serve as a reservoir of infection for other animals and mosquitoes act as the transmission vector to horses and people. The disease is not spread from horse to horse or from a horse to a human. An effective vaccine for horses is available and recommended to protect them from EEE...read more.
Equine Herpesvirus (EHV-1, EHV-4)
Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) is a viral disease of horses and other equidae. The disease can be caused by several different strains, but most commonly type 1 which causes respiratory disease, abortions, and/or neurologic disease, type 3 which causes coital exanthema, a venereal disease resulting in vesicles/pustules on the genital area of both male and female equidae, and type 4 which causes respiratory disease, especially in weanlings, but can rarely cause abortions, too. The neurologic form of type 1, also called Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy, and the respiratory form of type 1 and type 4, called Rhinopneumonitis, are reportable in the State of Michigan. EHV is transmitted by direct contact with ill equidae via respiratory or reproductive secretions, but also can be spread indirectly via contact with people, tack, buckets, vehicles, and other items that have had contact with ill animals. The best way to prevent the disease is via vaccination. Biosecurity is also very important. Horses and other equidae entering the premises (new horses and horses returning from events) should be quarantined from resident equidae for 4 weeks. Pregnant equidae should be kept away from young equine as they are the population most likely to become ill with the respiratory form. Ill equidae should be isolated from healthy equidae and either be cared for solely by a designated caretaker or cared for after healthy horses. Individuals caring for ill animals should wear protective gloves, boots, and clothing when caring for those animals to avoid spreading the disease to other equidae. All items in contact with ill animals should be cleaned and disinfected before contact with other equidae.
Equine Herpesvirus-1, EHV-1, (strain 1) has been an emerging disease as of late, especially in the neurologic form. Horses with the neurologic form of the disease may develop incoordination, weakness, paralysis, recumbency, or even death. The vaccine does not protect from this form of the disease. Suspected or confirmed cases of Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy and Rhinopneumonitis should be reported to our office at 800-292-3939.
- Visit the USDA's Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) website to learn more.
- Visit the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP)'s webpage to learn more.
- Animal Temperature Recording Log
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), also known as "swamp fever" and “Coggins Disease,” is caused by a virus that attacks red blood cells. Only equine (e.g., horses, ponies, mules, and donkeys species) are affected. Introducing certain body fluids, usually blood, from an infected horse to a healthy horse transmits this disease. This can be accomplished by an insect (typically horse flies or deer flies) or by a variety of mechanical means (such as the repeated use of a single needle on a number of horses, one of which is infected). Rarely, foals may acquire the disease from their mother during gestation. There are four “patterns” of EIA, and, depending on the pattern, signs of EIA can include depression, anemia, intermittent fever, depression, and/or severe weight loss, although some animals never show signs. A blood test, known as a coggins test, is performed to detect the disease. There is neither a vaccine to help prevent EIA nor an effective treatment for EIA. Equine with EIA are infected for life.
- Michigan law requires horses and other equidae to have tested negative for EIA within the previous 12 months prior to the animal moving in order to do any of the following:
- Travel to and enter onto the premises of an auction market in Michigan.
- Enter in publicly held exhibitions, fairs, or shows in Michigan. Publicly held exhibitions include horse shows, races, pulls, parades, team penning events, and similar activities.
- Be sold in Michigan, if the animal will leave the premises when sold.
- Be imported into Michigan. An Interstate Certificate of Veterinary Inspection, or health certificate, is also required to import horses and other equidae. Foals 6 months of age or younger and still nursing their mother are exempt from testing requirements, providing the mother has a current negative EIA test. Look here for requirements needed to import horses and other equidae into Michigan.
- USDA's website on EIA
- For more information on EIA, including maps of cases nation-wide by year, please see the USDA’s website on EIA
West Nile Virus (WNV)
West Nile Virus (WNV) is caused by a virus that primarily infects and multiplies in birds, which serve as reservoirs for the virus. The virus is spread between birds through the bite of an infected mosquito. Like EEE, WNV requires a bite from an infected mosquito and cannot be transmitted directly from infected horses to other horses or humans. Mosquitoes can spread the disease to humans and other animals, including horses. Mosquito precautions for horses are recommended and horses should be annually vaccinated against the disease. Taking steps to prevent standing water where mosquitoes can breed, such as by frequently changing the water in bird baths, planter trays, and animal water bowls/troughs, as well as removing old tires and filling puddles, is also advised.
- More information on West Nile Virus in horses and other WNV threats
- MI WNV Reported Case Maps by Year
- Yearly National West Nile Virus Statistics
- For more information, please visit the USDA's West Nile Virus Case Information.
Animal Industry Division