Michigan Interlibrary Loan Code: Protocols & Guidelines

Report of the Statewide Interlibrary Loan Protocol Committee 1990/91

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Interlibrary Loan Task Force Members
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Key Definitions
Protocols-Guidelines for Participation
Responsibilities of Borrowers
Responsibilities of Lenders
Expenses
Duration of Loan
Violation of Code
Training

Appendix A-Glossary
Appendix C-National Interlibrary Loan Code, 1980
Appendix D-Bibliography

Interlibrary Loan Task Force Members

Kathleen Menanteaux, Library of Michigan, Chairperson
Doris Asher, Sparrow Hospital Library
Leah Black, Michigan State University
Marsha Boyd, Alpena County Library
Mary Ann Chapman, Huron Valley Library System
Elaine Cline, Hope College
Suzanne Dees, Superiorland Library Cooperative
George Grimes, Eastern Michigan University
Julie Herrin, Michigan Library Consortium
Brenda Meadows, GMI
Bettina Meyer, Western Michigan University
Nancy Skowronski, Detroit Public Library
Connie Engle (MLC alternate representative)


Acknowledgements and a Special Message from the Chair

In January 1990, State Librarian James W. Fry created the Statewide ILL Protocol Review Committee. The charge for the Committee follows:

  1. Recommend guidelines for the enhancement of the Michigan statewide database of bibliographic information.
  2. Postulate possible developments impacting upon statewide resource sharing as a result of the implementation of OCLC/GAC.
  3. Review protocols for the sharing of all categories of library information resources among Michigan libraries and develop proposals for their enhancement as appropriate in keeping with established state, national and international standards.

The following document is the written realization of this charge as given to the Committee. It should be assumed that as the statewide database, and various regional or network databases expand and grow the 1990/91 protocol may need revision.

I would like to thank the members of the Committee for their dedication, support, and insight during the creation of this document. The team spirit and sense of cooperation in the group were always present, even though members represented multitype libraries of various sizes, and had diverse opinions and ideas. Everyone in the group contributed equally.

Special thanks should go to Mary Ann Chapman and Leah Black who took on the tough assignment of bringing our ideas together on paper when they were merely seeds. In addition, I would like to thank Mary Beth Leland and Beth Mills from the Library of Michigan, Technical Services Division for clerical support during the past months.

Finally, I would like to thank State Librarian James W. Fry for his stimulation and encouragement during the writing of this document.

Kathleen Menanteaux, Chairperson
Statewide Interlibrary Loan Protocol Committee

 


Introduction

Background

Access to information is a fundamental right of all Michigan citizens. Since no individual library has the resources available to meet all user needs, interlibrary loan service is maintained. It supplements and greatly expands local collections, removes geographic barriers and is essential to libraries of all types and sizes. Successful interlibrary loan service depends on the ability to identify and locate specific items. Individual libraries and networks in Michigan have created joint union lists and automated databases and subscribed to national automated databases to locate materials throughout the state and elsewhere. Interlibrary loan service has grown and improved as a result; the need for a coordinated statewide information network has also increased.

In 1989, the Library of Michigan selected OCLC's Group Access Capability (GAC) to establish a statewide database and to facilitate interlibrary loan service. Federal LSCA funds will continue to be used to encourage participation in the statewide information network. James W. Fry, State Librarian, appointed the Statewide Interlibrary Loan Protocol Committee to review current practices, project the effect of the database on resource sharing activities and provide an up-to-date interlibrary loan code for Michigan libraries.

Purpose of Michigan Interlibrary Loan Code

The purpose of the Michigan code is to:

  • Support the spirit of interlibrary cooperation among all types of libraries;
  • Encourage continued development of high quality interlibrary loan service to Michigan library users;
  • Recognize the diversity of network arrangements and methods of information access already in use in the state;
  • Provide standards, guidelines and protocols for consistent interlibrary loan practice at the state level.

Existing Interlibrary Loan Arrangements

In Michigan, interlibrary loan codes have been developed by library groups and networks organized geographically or by mutual interest. It is not the intent of this code to prescribe the nature of interlibrary lending under these arrangements, but to provide a framework for cooperation at the state level. The guidelines established in this document are based on accepted national practice, and have been designed to be as liberal and easy to apply as possible.

Scope of Lending Restrictions

Michigan interlibrary loan protocols place no restrictions on the types of materials to be requested. Lenders may choose to loan any type of library material. Borrowers should refer to the written guidelines of potential lenders before requesting materials.

Reasons for Adopting Statewide Protocols

Adopting a common set of protocols, standards of service, and procedures for measurement will enable Michigan libraries and networks to:

  • cooperate effectively,
  • share resources and expertise,
  • deliver information and materials across the state in a timely manner,
  • provide consistent and orderly interlibrary loan service to library users, and
  • help ensure equitable lending and borrowing within Michigan.

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Key Definitions

The following definitions are central ideas for all institutions involved in interlibrary loan activities. Additional terms and their definitions may be found in Appendix A.

Interlibrary loan is a transaction in which library material is made available from one library to another.

Resource sharing is a broader term. It includes sharing materials (interlibrary loan), expertise, joint purchases, and shared projects between libraries for mutual benefit.

Equity in resource sharing means that each library's contribution to the statewide effort should be proportional but not necessarily equal, recognizing that providing needed information to the citizens of Michigan is the ultimate, primary goal.

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Protocols-Guidelines for Participation

The Michigan Interlibrary Loan Protocols have been designed to facilitate lending and borrowing at the state level. They should be applied to all Michigan information network transactions.

Interlibrary loan service is a voluntary, cooperative activity. Each library may determine its own level of participation in regional and statewide resource sharing networks, but libraries accepting state or federal funds to promote resource sharing shall be expected to lend to other Michigan libraries.

Members of a Region of Cooperation (ROC) or other resource sharing network should adhere to their protocols.

An existing ROC or other resource sharing network may contract with one or more ROCs or networks to share materials and expertise.

Voluntary linking of resource networks shall form the basis of a Michigan statewide information network.

Interlibrary loan should serve as an adjunct to, not a substitute for, collection development.

Local and regional network resources should be exhausted first before initiating a request through the statewide interlibrary loan network. Libraries should attempt to borrow from the closest source holding the item within the state. Libraries should attempt to avoid one library receiving a disproportionately large number of requests.

When resources within the state have been exhausted, loan requests to out of state libraries should then conform to the provisions of the current National Interlibrary Loan Code. ( See Appendix C for the 1980 National Interlibrary Loan Code).

Each library will develop and present in written form if requested, its conditions of loan and, if appropriate, its cost structure, along with its billing and payment procedures. Libraries participating in the statewide OCLC Group Access database will provide and maintain their policies in the OCLC Name Address Directory (NAD).

Free interlibrary loan and reciprocal borrowing/lending agreements will be encouraged, but the decision to set and charge a fee will remain the prerogative of the individual lender.

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Responsibilities of Borrowers

Borrowing libraries shall exhaust available local resources before initiating interlibrary loan requests.

The Committee encourages the use of all electronic and automated sources available to the library or group.

All available resources within a geographic region shall be searched to fill requests of all participating libraries - public, school, academic, and special.

For large academic or public libraries, A region may be defined as a geographic region, a network or group, or the entire state.

Large public or academic libraries, of course, may request items from any other library holding the item in-state before going out-of- state.

Materials requested shall be described as completely and accurately as possible following accepted bibliographic practice. A source of verification shall be cited for both bibliographic data and location, if possible. For example:

  • To verify specific citation components (e.g. author, title, etc.), general or specialized indexes, abstracts, directories, bibliographic tools or online databases should be used.
  • To verify location, union catalogs, computerized databases, OCLC and other listing services should be used.

When items cannot be verified, the statement "cannot verify" should be included along with complete information as to the original source of the citation.

The borrowing library is responsible for compliance with the copyright law (Title 17, U.S. Code) and its accompanying guidelines, and shall inform its users of the applicable portions of the law. An indication of compliance shall be provided with all copy requests.

Requests shall be submitted on accepted interlibrary loan forms with the borrowing library's complete address, telephone and fax numbers neatly printed or typed (see Appendix B for examples of forms and mailing labels). Libraries with access to an automated request transmittal system should consider that system the preferred means of transmitting requests at the state level. Other means of transmitting a request to a potential lender (ALA forms, fax transmission, telephone) should be employed if no other avenue exists or if specific arrangements have been made for transmitting requests in an alternate manner.

The safety of borrowed materials is the responsibility of the borrowing library from the time the material leaves the lending library until it is received by the lending library, just as an individual borrowing directly is responsible for materials from the time of check-out to the date of return. The borrowing library is responsible for packaging the material so as to ensure its return in good condition. If damage or loss occurs, the borrowing library must meet all costs of repairs or replacement in accordance with preferences of the lending library.

The borrowing library and its users must comply with the conditions of loan established by the lending library.

Interlibrary loan staff should be aware of Michigan's Library Privacy Act (1982 PA455, MCL 397.601 et. seq.). This act prohibits the disclosure of any library record which identifies a patron and the library materials used or requested by the patron (see the Library of Michigan's Library Law Handbook: State Laws Relating to Michigan Libraries,1998).

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Responsibilities of Lenders

The decision to loan is at the discretion of the lending library. Each library is encouraged, however, to interpret as generously as possible its own lending policy with due consideration to the interests of its primary clientele.

A statement of interlibrary loan policy should be made available upon request. Participants in state OCLC Group Access should publish and maintain their policies in the OCLC Name Address Directory (NAD).

The lending library should process requests promptly. Conditions of loan should be stated clearly and material should be packaged carefully.

The lending library should notify the borrowing library when unable to fill a request, stating the reason for not filling the request, if possible.

If verification is disregarded, or the bibliographic data is incorrect, the lending library may return the request unfilled without special effort to identify the reference.

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Expenses

The borrowing library should anticipate charges by referring to established policies and authorize them on the initial request. If no fee information is available, indicate the maximum acceptable fee; if no fee is acceptable, indicate free or 0$.

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Duration of Loan

The loan period, unless otherwise specified by the lending library, is the period of time the item may remain with the borrowing library disregarding travel time.

Interlibrary loan material should be returned promptly.

A renewal request should be sent in time to reach the lending library no later than the due date. If the lending library does not respond, it will be assumed that renewal, for the same period as the original loan, is granted.

All material on loan is subject to immediate recall, and the borrowing library should comply promptly.

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Violation of Code

Each library is responsible for maintaining the provisions of the 1990/91 Michigan Interlibrary Loan Code: Protocols and Guidelines in good faith.

Non-compliance of the 1990/91 Code will limit borrowing potential and will severely affect service to patrons at the violating library.

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Training

The effective and timely training of all personnel involved in interlibrary loan is necessary to insure the success of the Michigan statewide information network. Library of Michigan and Michigan Library Consortium, in cooperation with other groups, will provide training, coordination and support of ILL personnel. Libraries are responsible for ensuring proper training of interlibrary loan practitioners. Topics to be included in training:

  • The U.S. copyright law
  • The National Interlibrary Loan Code, 1980 (See Appendix C)
  • How to interpret OCLC union list local data records
  • How to fill out standard ALA interlibrary loan forms
  • How to verify citations bibliographically
  • How to use the OCLC Interlibrary Loan Subsystem
  • The provisions of the 1990/91 Michigan Interlibrary Loan Code: Protocols and Guidelines.
  • Library Privacy Act

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Appendix A-Glossary

 

Blind request - An ILL request where the borrowing library has not determined ownership by the lending library. Bibliographic information may have been verified.

 

Copyright compliance - The borrowing library is responsible for making certain that the request conforms to the copyright law and the accompanying guidelines. A lending library may choose not to process a photocopy request if a representation is not made as to copyright conformity. (from Interlibrary Loan Practices Handbook, 1984.)

Fax - see Telefacsimile.

CCG - Conforms to copyright guidelines.

CCL - Conforms to copyright law.

GAC - see Group Access Capability.

Group Access Capability - (GAC) extends OCLC ILL Subsystem access to cooperative ILL groups so that all ILL group members can use the OCLC ILL Subsystem to interact with each other. (extracted from: Interlibrary Loan: User Manual, 3rd ed., 1985.

Local system - a computerized online catalog which can, in some cases, be accessed off-site.

LM - Library of Michigan.

MLC - Michigan Library Consortium.

OCLC Online System - The telecommunications system, computers, peripheral devices, and associated software which make available to participants the online computer services provided by OCLC. (from OCLC, Inc.)

Reciprocal borrowing agreements - An arrangement by which two libraries mutually agree to exchange library materials on interlibrary loan without any charges to either library.

Regional outlets - These libraries have the necessary human and bibliographic resources to serve as the conduits for interlibrary loan traffic both within and outside the region. These libraries have direct access to OCLC and have the responsibility for verification of requests. Type I regional outlets handle both their own and other institution's ILL requests. Type 2 regional outlets handle only their own requests. Those libraries without bibliographic or verification sources will be expected to go to their Regional Outlet for these services.

Region of Cooperation - ROCs were established by the Library of Michigan for the purpose of orderly flow of information and resources within the region. They also channel interlibrary loan requests through a limited number of regional centers. These centers have been provided with bibliographic tools, such as OCLC, for verification of ILL requests. Only Regional Outlets may direct requests outside the Region.

Telefacsimile - A means of transmission of the text of data electronically using telephone lines. In Michigan, both requests for material, as well as the information itself may be sent by telefacsimile. See the forms for telefacsimile use in Appendix B.

Verify, verification - to ascertain that the bibliographic and citational information is correct by using standardized sources, such as OCLC.

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Appendix C-National Interlibrary Loan Code, 1980

Adopted by the Board of Directors of the Reference and Adult Services Division of the American Library Association, June 30, 1980. Reprinted with permission of the American Library Association; copyright 1981 by the American Library Association.

Introduction

Interlibrary loan is essential to the vitality of libraries of all types and sizes and is a means by which a wide range of material can be made available to users. This code is designed primarily to regulate lending relations between research libraries and between libraries operating outside libraries organized geographically, by mutual subject interest, or other bases will have developed codes of their own. It is not the intent of this code to prescribe the nature of interlibrary lending under such arrangements. (See the Michigan Interlibrary Loan Code: Protocols and Guidelines, 1990/91.)

The effectiveness of a national system of interlibrary lending is directly related to the equitable distribution of costs among all the libraries involved. Interlibrary loan is an adjunct to, not a substitute for, collection development in individual libraries. Requests to national and research libraries or requests beyond networks and consortia should only be made after local, state, and regional sources have been exhausted. It is understood that every library must maintain an appropriate balance between resource sharing and responsibility to its primary clientele.

This national code contains guidelines for the borrowing and lending of library material. Details of procedures to be used in implementing the code will be found in the Interlibrary Loan Procedure Manual published by the American Library Association. [A revision of this manual (Chicago, 1970), originally prepared by Sarah Katharine Thomson for use with the National Interlibrary Loan Code, 1968, is now in process.] All libraries participating in interlibrary loan should have copies of this publication and should follow these recommendations. The manual also provides information on international interlibrary loan.

The Reference and Adult Services Division, acting for the American Library Association in its adoption of this code, recognizes that the exchange of material between libraries is an important element in the provision of library service and believes it to be in the public interest to encourage such an exchange.

Definition

An interlibrary loan is a transaction in which library material, or a copy of the material, is made available by one library to another upon request.

Purpose

The purpose of interlibrary loan as defined in this code is to obtain, for research and serious study, library material not available through local, state, or regional libraries.

Scope

A loan or a copy of any material may be requested from another library in accordance with the published lending policy of that library. The lending library will decide in each case whether a particular item can be provided.

Most libraries will not ordinarily lend the following types of materials:

  1. Rare or valuable material, including manuscripts;
  2. Bulky or fragile items that are difficult or expensive to ship;
  3. Material in high demand at the lending library;
  4. Material with local circulation restrictions;
  5. Unique material that would be difficult or impossible to replace.

Responsibilities of Borrowing Libraries

  1. Each library should provide the resources to meet the study, instructional, informational, and normal research needs of its primary clientele. This can be accomplished through its own collection or through local, state, or regional cooperative resource-sharing agreements. Material requested from another library under this code should generally be limited to those items that do not conform to the library's collection development policy and for which there is no recurring demand.
  2. The interlibrary loan staff of each library should be familiar with, and use, relevant interlibrary loan documents and aids. These include this code, the Interlibrary Loan Procedure Manual, lending policies of the major research libraries, and standard bibliographic tools and services.
  3. Each library should inform its users of the purpose of interlibrary loan and of the library's interlibrary borrowing policy.
  4. The borrowing library is responsible for compliance with the copyright law (Title 17, U.S. Code) and its accompanying guidelines, and should inform its users of the applicable portions of the law. An indication of compliance must be provided with all copy requests.
  5. Requested material must be described completely and accurately following accepted bibliographic practice as outlined in the current Interlibrary Loan Procedure Manual. If the item cannot be verified, the statement "cannot verify" should be included along with complete information as to the original source of the citation.
  6. The borrowing library should carefully screen all requests for loans and reject any that do not conform to this code.
  7. Standard bibliographic tools, such as union catalogs, computerized data bases, and other listing services, should be used in determining the location of material. Care should be taken to avoid concentrating the burden of requests on a few libraries.
  8. Standard interlibrary loan formats should be used for all requests, regardless of the means of transmission.
  9. The safety of borrowed material is the responsibility of the borrowing library from the time the material leaves the lending library until it is received by the lending library. The borrowing library is responsible for packaging the material so as to ensure its return in good condition. If damage or loss occurs, the borrowing library must meet all costs of repair or replacement, in accordance with the preference of the lending library.
  10. The borrowing library and its users must comply with the conditions of loan established by the lending library. Unless specifically forbidden by the lending library, copying by the borrowing library is permitted provided that it is in accordance with the copyright law and no damage to the original material will result.
  11. The borrowing library should encourage library users to travel to other libraries for on-site access to material when extensive use of a collection is required or the nature of the material requires special handling. The borrowing library should assist the user in making the necessary arrangements.

Responsibilities of Lending Libraries

  1. The decision to loan material is at the discretion of the lending library. Each library is encouraged, however, to interpret as generously as possible its own lending policy with due consideration to the interests of its primary clientele.
  2. A statement of interlibrary loan policy and charges should be made available upon request.
  3. The lending library should process requests promptly. Conditions of loan should be stated clearly and material should be packaged carefully. The lending library should notify the borrowing library when unable to fill a request, stating the reason for not filling the request.
  4. A lending library is responsible for informing any borrowing library of its apparent failure to follow the provisions of this code.

Expenses

  1. The borrowing library assumes responsibility for all costs charged by the lending library, including transportation, insurance, copying, and any service charges. The borrowing library should try to anticipate charges and authorize them on the original request.
  2. It is recommended that nominal costs, such as postage, be absorbed by the lending library.
  3. If the charges are more than nominal and not authorized by the borrowing library, the lending library should inform the requesting library and ask for authorization to proceed.

Duration of Loan

  1. The duration of loan, unless otherwise specified by the lending library, is the period of time the item may remain with the borrowing library disregarding the time spent in transit.
  2. Interlibrary loan material should be returned promptly.
  3. The borrowing library should ask for renewals only in unusual circumstances. The renewal request should be sent in time to reach the lending library no later than the date due. If the lending library does not respond, it will be assumed that renewal, for the same period as the original loan, is granted.
  4. All material on loan is subject to immediate recall, and the borrowing library should comply promptly.

Violation of Code

Continued disregard of any provision of this code is sufficient reason

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Appendix D-Bibliography

The Alabama Library Information Network : An Interlibrary Loan Manual. Montgomery, Alabama Public Library Service, 1982.

American Library Association. Interlibrary Loan Committee. Interlibrary Loan Codes, 1980 : International Lending Principles and Guidelines, 1978. Chicago, American Library Association, 1981.

Ballard, Thomas H. The Failure of Resource Sharing In Public Libraries and Alternative Strategies For Service. Chicago, American Library Association, 1986.

Bills, Linda G. Interlibrary Loan Before and After OCLC. Springfield, Ill., Illinois State Library, 1984.

Boss, Richard W. Document Delivery in the United States : A Report to the Council on Library Resources. Washington, D.C., The Council, 1983.

Boucher, Virginia. Interlibrary Loan Practices Handbook. Chicago, American Library Association, 1984.

Boucher, Virginia. Library Resource Sharing in Colorado. Denver, Colo., Colorado State Library, 1988.

Canadian Library Association. Committee on the Directory of Interlibrary Loan Policies and Photocopying Services in Canadian Libraries. Interlibrary Loan Directory. Ottawa, Canadian Library Association, 5th ed. 1989-

Connecticut State Library. Interlibrary Loan in Connecticut. State Library, 1989.

Copyright Act of 1976. 17 U.S.C. Pub. Law 94-553, October 19, 1976.

Copyright Policies in ARL Libraries. Washington, D.C., Association of Research Libraries, Office of Management Studies, Systems and Procedures Exchange Center, 1984.

De Leuw, Carther & Company. Illinois Interlibrary Delivery System Study : Final Report. Chicago, DeLewu, Cather, 1980.

Directory of Interlibrary Loan Policies of CRLC libraries. Windsor, CN: Capitol Region Library Council, 1988.

Directory of Telefacsimile Sites in North American Libraries. 5th ed. 1990.

Gorin, Robert S. Florida Library Information Network Project : A Comparative Study of OCLC, TWX, U.S. Mail, and Closed-Circuit Teletype : February 2, 1981-March 31, 1981 : With Recommendations. Tallahassee, Fla., State Library of Florida, 1981.

Griffiths, Jose Marie. Final report : Public Library Development Plan for Michigan. Lansing, Mich., Library of Michigan, 1990.

IFLA Office for International Lending. A Brief Guide to Centres of International Lending and Photocopying. Boston Spa, Eng., IFLA Office for International Lending, 3rd ed. 1984.

Illinois State Library. The Illinois Interlibrary Loan Code. Springfield, Ill., The State Library, 1988.

Interlibrary Loan Policy (Except Audiovisuals). Bethesda, Md., U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 1983.

Jackson, Mary E. Research Access Through New Technology. New York: AMS Press, Inc. 1989.

Journal of Interlibrary Loan and Information Supply. Vol. 1, no. 1, 1990- Binghamton, N.Y.: Haworth Press, 1990-

King, David N. Unmet Needs of ILLINET Users. Springfield, Ill., Illinois State Library, 1987.

King Research, Inc. Interlibrary Loan Compensation Plan for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania : Final Report, March 15, 1985. Rockville, Md., King Research, 1985.

Kohl, David F. Circulation, Interlibrary Loan, Patron Use, and Collection Maintenance : A Handbook for Library Management. Santa Barbara, Calif., ABC-Clio Information Services, c1986.

Library of Congress. Copyright Office. Library Reproduction of Copyrighted Works (17 U.S.C. 108): Report of the Registrar of Copyrights. SUDOC: LC3.2:1 61/988. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Register of Copyrights, 1988.

J. Matthews and Associates. Resource Sharing in Montana : A Study of Interlibrary Loan and Alternatives for a Montana Union Catalog. Helena, Mont., Montana State Library, 1980.

Measurement of Interlibrary Loan : A Testing of Data Collection Approaches. Urbana-Champaign, Ill., Library Research Center, University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1989.

Michigan State Library Services. Plan for Restructuring Interlibrary Loan in Michigan. Lansing, Mich., Michigan Department of Education, Bureau of Libraries and Adult Extended Learning, 1980.

Morris, Leslie R. Interlibrary Loan Policies Directory. 3rd ed. New York, Neal-Schuman Publishers, c1988.

National Information Standards Organization. Interlibrary Loan Data Elements. New Brunswick, NJ. Transaction Publishers, 1990.

National Library of Medicine (U.S.) Interlibrary Loan Policy. Bethesda, Md., U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 1989.

New York (State). State Library, Albany. Division of Library Development. New York State Interlibrary Loan Network : NYSILL Manual. Albany, 1970.

Nitecki, Danuta A. Some Current Reprographic Concerns Related to Interlibrary Loan. Washington, D.C., Library of Congress Photo-duplication Service, 1977.

OCLC, Inc. Interlibrary Loan User Manual. 3rd ed. Dublin, Oh., OCLC, Inc., 1987.

Online Borrowing and Lending Among Illinois Library Computer System (LCS) Member Libraries. Springfield, Ill., Illinois Board of Higher Education, 1983.

Reed, Mary Hutchings. The Copyright Primer for Librarians and Educators. Chicago and London: American Library Association, 1987.

Rouse, William B. Application of a Library Network Model : A Case Study of the Illinois Library and Information Network. Urbana, Ill., University of Illinois, 1978.

Shoffner, Ralph M. Interlibrary Loan in New York State : Recommended Redesign. Beaverton, Or., Ringgold Management Systems, 1986.

Sigmon, Joel. Interlibrary Services Manual. North Carolina State Library, 1983.

The State Library of Ohio Policy on Interlibrary Loan. Columbus, Ohio, State Library of Ohio, 1987.

Survey of Wisconsin Interlibrary Loan Patterns. Madison, Wis., Wisconsin Dept. of Public Instruction, 1985.

Thomson, Sarah Katharine. Interlibrary Loan Procedure Manual. Chicago, Interlibrary Loan Committee, American Library Association, 1970.

United States Task Force on a National Periodicals System. Effective Access to the Periodical Literature: A National Program. Washington, National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Task Force on a National Periodicals System, 1977.

Vrooman, Hugh T. A Network Management Tool : Computer Simulation of Interlibrary Lending. Olympia, Wash., Washington State Library, 1979.

Weech, Terry L. Final Report on Phase II of Project to Devise and Test a Technique to Monitor Interlibrary Loan and Information Requests at the System Level. Springfield, Ill., Illinois State Library, 1985.

Williams, James F. Study of Interlibrary Loan Policies of the Metropolitan Detroit Medical Library Group. Detroit, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Library and Biomedical Information Service Center, 1971.

Wisconsin Interlibrary Loan Guidelines. Madison, Wis., Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Division for Library Services, 1985.

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