Skip to main content

Muskegon County Landfill Type II (Ravenna, Muskegon County)

EGLE Site Lead: Kent Walters, or 616-278-4350. Webpage last updated January 26, 2022.


Muskegon County Landfill (MCL) is an active type II municipal landfill operated by the county and located at 9366 Apple Avenue.  There have been historical low level Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) impacts to groundwater from past landfill activities.  A Remedial Action Plan was designed and completed in the late 1990s, and currently there are no VOC detections.  The majority of the MCL is surrounded by a groundwater interceptor ditch.  The ditch water level surface is representative of groundwater and captures shallow groundwater and contaminants that may be flowing under the MCL. Because of the MCL's historical VOC impacts to groundwater, a potential impact of PFAS was also of concern.

Muskegon County Landfill Type II PFOS+PFOA Detection Map

Recent Accomplishments

Next Steps

  • EGLE and MCL are reviewing the submitted Remedial Action Plan for managing PFAS impacts to groundwater.

Residential Well Testing/Alternate Water Information

  • The closest drinking water receptors are residential homes approximately 1,900 feet west/southwest from the most impacted onsite monitoring wells.

Upcoming Community Engagement

  • None scheduled at this time.

Sampling Results Summary

This table reflects data received after 8/3/2020. Data prior to 8/3/2020 is reflected in the timeline below. 

This table was updated to include all seven PFAS criteria effective December 21, 2020.

Type of Sample

Date Sampled (or Range)

Number of Sample Results Received

Number of Samples above Criteria

Groundwater Monitoring Wells

October 2020 - February 2021 17 4

* Residential well and groundwater monitoring well results are compared to EGLE Part 201 criteria for 7 PFAS compounds:  PFOS (16 ppt), PFOA (8 ppt), PFNA (6 ppt), PFHxS (51 ppt), PFHxA (400,000 ppt), PFBS (420 ppt), and HFPO-DA (370 ppt).

Sampling Notes

  • On August 3, 2020, new Part 201 Criteria went into effect.  Historical sampling data compared to Part 201 Criteria >70 is captured in the historical timeline below.
  • The closest surface water receptor is the Black Creek, approximately 900 feet from the most impacted on-site monitoring wells.
  • On-site quarterly monitoring within the interceptor trench indicates groundwater flow direction is to the west/southwest.  West of the landfill and interceptor trench, groundwater flows to the north.  The Black Creek, which is directly south of the site, flows from east to west.
  • Monitoring wells MW-D1 and MW-B3 have PFNA exceedances of the proposed groundwater criteria at 28 ppt and 14 ppt respectively.

Historical Timeline

    • March 6, 2018, The Industrial Pre-Treatment Program (IPP) sampled the landfill leachate for PFAS.  Results indicated PFOA+PFOS values ranging from 380 ppt to 1,500 ppt.  
    • November 28, 2018, the MCL sampled nine groundwater monitoring wells and 2 non-potable onsite supply wells.
    • February 26, 2019, the MCL sampled one groundwater monitoring well downgradient of the MCL.
    • November 7, 2019, MCL submitted a plan to further define PFAS impacts to groundwater on Landfill property as a part in developing a remedial action plan.
    • On February 27, 2020, EGLE approved a PFAS sampling workplan to provide better definition of PFAS in groundwater onsite.  This data will be used to create a long term PFAS management plan and remedial action plan.  A total of 22 groundwater monitoring wells will be sampled and 2 new monitoring wells will be installed.
    • On March 12, 2020, MCL started to install four additional PFAS groundwater monitoring well in accordance with their EGLE approved workplan to provide a long-term PFAS management and monitoring plan.
    • In March 2020, MCL installed four new groundwater monitoring wells to help better define PFAS impacts to groundwater
    • On May 26-29, 2020, MCL collected samples from 22 monitoring wells for PFAS analysis.
    • On June 18, 2020, MCL provided EGLE the PFAS sampling results from the May 2020 sampling event.  13 wells were in exceedance of drinking water quality standards.  The highest PFOS + PFOA was 203 ppt in monitoring well MW-D2. The sampling chart has been updated to reflect all of the sample results.

    Historical Sampling Chart: Data is reflective of criteria prior to August 3, 2020,  PFOS and PFOA Only

    This chart reflects data received prior to August 3, 2020.

    Type of Sample

    Date Sampled (or Range)

    Number of Samples

    Number of Results Received

    Number of Non-Detects  Number Between Non-detect and Standard*  Number Greater Than or Equal to Standard 


    February 2019 - May 2020 32 32 11 6 15
    Non-Potable Supply Well November 28, 2019 2 2 1 1 0
     Cumulative   34 34 12 7 15 

    *Groundwater results are compared to EGLE Part 201 Criteria of 70 ppt PFOS+PFOA.

    • On August 25, 2020, EGLE approved a workplan to sample 15 additional groundwater monitoring wells Southwest and West of the landfill.

    • On October 8, 2020, MCL collected samples from 15 groundwater monitoring wells for PFAS.
    • On November 11, MCL submitted results from the October 8, 2020 sampling event.  The highest PFOA detection was at MW-29D at 47 ppt, the highest PFOS detection was at MW-29D at 24 ppt.