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Executive Directive 2023-5: Conversion of State Fleet

Michigan is on the cutting-edge of mobility and electrification. Our world-leading auto industry is making the switch to electric, and we continue to attract battery, semiconductor, and clean energy investments from other states and nations. We must usher the future of mobility and clean energy into Michigan by winning projects and leading by example in state government. 



We have taken several actions as a state government to better coordinate resources and investments as we build and lead the future of mobility, electrification, and clean energy. Michigan’s Future Mobility Plan maps out a comprehensive strategy that addresses future mobility challenges by growing the mobility workforce, providing more accessible transportation infrastructure, and developing innovative mobility policies. I recently signed a historic package of clean energy legislation including a 100% clean energy standard by 2040. As a state government, the State of Michigan has committed to powering itself with 100% clean energy by 2025 and having all state-owned buildings be carbon neutral by 2040. Now, we are building on that leadership by tackling state government transportation emissions. Lowering transportation-related greenhouse-gas emissions—which account for a third of total emissions—is essential.



Today I order the appropriate state agencies to begin the process of converting vehicles owned and used by the state—the state fleet—to zero emission vehicles, with a goal of completing that conversion by 2033 for light-duty vehicles and 2040 for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. This will reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, boost demand for Michigan automakers’ ZEV production, and reduce the overall costs of the state fleet.  



Acting under sections 1 and 8 of article 5 of the Michigan Constitution of 1963, I direct the following:


1. Conversion of the State Fleet:   


a. The Department of Technology, Management, and Budget (“Department”) shall, in consultation with the Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy; the Michigan Infrastructure Office; the Michigan Public Service Commission; the Michigan Department of Transportation; and the Office of Future Mobility and Electrification (collectively, “the agencies”), establish policies to promote the immediate use of ZEVs in the state’s fleet and achieve the following minimum targets:


i. Conversion of light-duty vehicles in the state fleet to ZEVs by 2033; and,


ii. Conversion of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles in the state fleet to ZEVs by 2040. 


b. In formulating these policies, the Department shall seek to:


i. Prioritize the purchase of ZEVs in the fleet;


ii. Prioritize use of ZEVs in the fleet;


iii. Prioritize transition of fleet vehicles that travel the most miles;


iv. Prioritize transition of fleet vehicles in Justice40 communities and in high-density areas which have been historically disadvantaged by higher pollution levels;


v. Site electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), including but not limited to:


1. Installing EVSE at state-owned facilities;


2. Negotiating terms in facility leases for EVSE;


3. Siting EVSE on State-controlled property in Justice40 communities and in high-density areas which have been historically disadvantaged by higher pollution levels; and


4. Negotiating upgrading electricity supply to support EVSE.


vi. Explore the potential for funding opportunities from outside of state government, including opportunities to secure grants, credits, or reimbursements from the federal government, private, non-profit and/or philanthropic organizations.


vii. Establish vehicle purchase exception criteria, and an exception review and approval process, by which agencies may seek exceptions for specific state fleet vehicles. Exceptions shall be disfavored and, when requesting an exception, the requesting agency shall consider alternate decarbonization strategies for reducing fleet emissions, including, but not limited to, biofuels and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; and,  


viii. Explore opportunities for joint procurement of ZEVs in partnership with local units of government, higher education institutions, and local school districts.


2. Reporting requirements:


a. The Director of the Department shall, in consultation with the agencies, prepare a Zero Emissions Plan (ZEP), which shall be a summary of the policies developed under subsection 1(a). The ZEP shall be made available to my office within six (6) months of the issuance of this directive and shall include:


i. Fleet replacement schedules;


ii. EVSE siting and build-out plans;


iii. Program management plan and requirements;


iv. Operations and maintenance plan for ZEVs and EVSE; and


v. Anticipated funding needs. 


b. On a yearly basis thereafter, the Director of the Department shall, in consultation with the agencies, update the ZEP to summarize progress on transitioning the fleet to ZEVs and any changes to the policies developed under subsection 1(a). The update shall:


i. Use data obtained from use of the state fleet;


ii. State whether the state is on track to meet electrification goals and milestones;


iii. Include an update on vehicle availability and pricing; and


iv. Communicate any anticipated funding needs.


c. The Department shall make the ZEP and any updates available online. 


3. Other fleets: Higher education institutions and local governments are encouraged to undertake similar fleet decarbonization and implementation planning efforts. 


4. Definitions:


a. For purposes of this directive, the following terms are defined as follows:


i. Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) is defined as any equipment that in any way supplies electricity or other fuel(s) to a ZEV;


ii. Fleet is defined as the group of vehicles controlled and operated at the agency level for agency operations, missions, or responsibilities, regardless of ownership status;


iii. Heavy-duty vehicles are defined as vehicles weighing over 26,001 pounds;


iv. Justice40 refers to the federal executive order 14008 of Jan 27, 2021;  


v. Light-duty vehicles are defined as vehicles weighing less than 10,000 pounds;


vi. Medium-duty vehicles are defined as vehicles weighing between 10,001 pounds and 26,000 pounds; and 


vii. Zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) are any vehicles that use a propulsion technology that does not produce greenhouse-gas emissions.


5. Enforceability: This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party.


6. Severability: The provisions of this directive are severable and if any provision, or portion thereof, is held unconstitutional or otherwise invalid, such unconstitutionality or invalidity does not affect the remaining provisions, which remain in force. 



State departments and agencies must take all necessary steps to implement this directive, including through the allocation of available funding and other resources in a manner consistent with applicable law. 



This directive is effective immediately. 



Thank you for your cooperation in its implementation.


Click to view the full PDF of the executive directive.