Skip to main content

Michigan Biosolids PFAS-related information and links

In early 2018, EGLE’s Water Resources Division (WRD) developed the Industrial Pretreatment Program (IPP) PFAS Initiative Study of 95 municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) to help identify and systematically reduce and eliminate sources of PFAS (PFOS/PFOA) entering wastewater collection systems.  During this study, some WWTPs were found to have elevated PFAS in their effluent and associated residuals (sludge/biosolids).  Through this study, WRD identified 6 WWTPs with industrially impacted biosolids.  WRD temporarily restricted their land application program until elevated sources of the PFOS were eliminated and residual PFOS concentrations were decreased. 

Expanding upon the information collected during the IPP PFAS Initiative, in the fall of 2018, WRD launched a study to evaluate the presence of PFAS in Municipal Wastewater and Associated Residuals.  Through this study, 42 municipal WWTPs were sampled to evaluate the presence of PFAS in influent, effluent, and residuals.  As part of this initiative, 29 land application sites (associated with 10 municipal WWTPs) were evaluated to further understand the potential impact land-applied biosolids has on the environment.  AECOM Technical Services, Inc. (a consulting firm) was contracted by WRD to perform all the sampling in this study. All samples were analyzed for 24 PFAS compounds.  

For a summary of the study and initial findings of the IPP PFAS Initiative, see the Summary Report: PFAS in Municipal Wastewater and Associated Residuals (Sludge/Biosolids).  For the complete detailed report covering the IPP PFAS Initiative and the Statewide Study of 42 municipal WWTPs, see Evaluation of PFAS in Influent, Effluent, and Residuals of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Michigan.

For a summary of the land application site screening results, see Statewide Wastewater Treatment Plant and Biosolids PFAS Study: Field Reports Summary.  See the below attachments for detailed field reports covering the screening results for individual land application sites. Persons with disabilities may request this material in an alternative format by contacting EGLE's ADA Accessibility Coordinator. Please visit for a list of state Coordinators.

Field Report Addendums 

Interim Strategy – Land Application of Biosolids Containing PFAS

EGLE is implementing the following interim strategy/requirements to guide WWTPs and landowners/farmers who make decisions on land applying biosolids with detectable concentrations of PFAS.  The following documents describe this strategy and requirements:

Additional Biosolids and PFAS information can be located at the following links.