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Appendix C: References

  • Davis, R.V. 2009. "Bioattenuation of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors in the subsurface: Update on recent studies and proposed screening criteria for the vapor-intrusion pathway." L.U.S.T. Line Bulletin 31:11-14.
  • Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy (EGLE). 2020. Toxics Steering Group Recommendations for Interim Action Screening Levels and Time-Sensitive Interim Action Screening Levels. Retrieved February 8, 2024. 
  • Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy (EGLE). 2023. Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid – Petroleum Releases Characterization, Remediation, and Management Guidance. Retrieved January 30, 2024. 
  • Hers, I., J. Atwater. L. Li, and R. Zapf-Gilje. 2000. "Evaluation of Vadose Zone Biodegradation of BTX Vapours." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 46 (3-4):233–264.
  • ITRC (Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council). 2014. ITRC Petroleum Vapor Intrusion – Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management (PVI -1). Accessed January 30, 2024, from ITRC PVI-1 (
  • Lahvis, M.A., and A.L. Baehr. 1996. Estimation of Rates of Aerobic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Simulation of Gas Transport in the Unsaturated Zone. Water Resources Research 32(7):2231-2249.
  • Lahvis, M. A., Hers, I., Davis, R. V., Wright, J., DeVaull, G. E. 2013. "Vapor Intrusion Screening at Petroleum UST Sites." Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation 33 (2):53-67.
  • McAlary, T., Nicholson, P., Bertrand, D., Abreu, L., and Ettinger, R. 2007. "A Case Study on the Influence of Aerobic Biodegradation on Vapor Intrusion at a Former Refinery Property." In Air and Waste Management Association’s Specialty Conference on Vapor Intrusion. Providence, RI.
  • McAlary, T.A., J. Provoost, and H.D. Dawson. 2011. Vapor intrusion. Dealing with Contaminated Sites: From Theory Towards Practical Applications, Chapter 10. F.A. Swartjes [ed.], Springer Science.
  • McHugh, T., Davis, R., DeVaull, G., Hopkins, H., Menatti, J., and Peargin, T. 2010. "Evaluation of Vapor Attenuation at Petroleum Hydrocarbon Sites: Considerations for Site Screening and Investigation." Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal 19 (6): 725-745.
  • Ostendorf, D.W., Hinlein, E.S., Lutenegger, A.J., and Kelley, S.P. 2000. "Soil Gas Transport Above a Jet Fuel/Solvent Spill at Plattsburgh Air Force Base." Water Resources Research 36 (9):2531 – 2547.
  • Ririe, T.G., Sweeney, R.E., Daugherty, S.J. 2002. "A Comparison of Hydrocarbon Vapor Attenuation in the Field with Predictions from Vapor Diffusion Models.” Soil and Sediment Contamination 11 (4): 529–554.
  • Roggemans, S., C.L. Bruce, and P.C. Johnson. 2001. "Vadose zone natural attenuation of hydrocarbon vapors: An empirical assessment of soil gas vertical profile data." In: Soil and Groundwater Research. Washington, DC: American Petroleum Institute. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  • Suarez, M.P. and H.S. Rifai. 1999. Biodegradation Rates for Fuel Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater. Bioremediation Journal 3(4):337-362.
  • Turner, D.A., J. Pichtel, J. McKillip, and J.V. Goodpaster. 2014. “Microbial Degradation of Gasoline in Soil: Comparison by Soil Type,” Bioremediation & Biodegradation 5. DOI:10.4172/2155-6199.1000216.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2012a. Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Differ In Their Potential for Vapor Intrusion. Washington D.C. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2012b. Conceptual Model Scenarios for the Vapor Intrusion Pathway (EPA 530-R-10-003). Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Retrieved February 5, 2024.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2013. Evaluation of Empirical Data to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds. originally drafted and released as Evaluation of Empirical Data and Modeling Studies to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds. Report EPA 510-R-13-001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency 103 Response, Washington, D.C., January, 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2015a. Technical Guide for Addressing Petroleum Vapor Intrusion at Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (EPA 510-R-15-001). U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks Washington, D.C. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2015b. OSWER Technical Guide for Assessing and Mitigating the Vapor Intrusion Pathway from Subsurface Vapor Sources to Indoor Air [OSWER Publication 9200.2-154]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Retrieved January 30, 2024.