Skip to main content

PBBs: Additional Information & References

Visit the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) website for more information about PBBs.

Read this history of the PBB incident and early research: Fries, G.F. (1985) “The PBB episode in Michigan: An overall appraisal.” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 16(2), 105-56.  

Read the 2015 IARC review of the carcinogenicity of PBBs.

Read about ongoing clean-up efforts by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency throughout the St. Louis Community.

See what was published regarding the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study(Please note, over the years, MDHHS has also been named the Michigan Department of Public Health [MDPH] and the Michigan Department of Community Health [MDCH].)


ATSDR (2004). Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Atlanta (GA): Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Blanck HM, Marcus M, Tolbert PE, Rubin C, Henderson AK, Hertzberg VS, Zhang RH, Cameron L. (2000). Age at Menarche and Tanner Stage in Girls Exposed in Utero and Postnatally to Polybrominated Biphenyl. Epidemiology.11(6):641-647.

Davis SI, Blanck HM, Hertzberg VS, Tolbert PE, Rubin C, Cameron LL, Henderson AK, Marcus M. (2005). Menstrual function among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: a follow-up prevalence study. Environ Health. 9;4:15

Givens ML, Small CM, Terrell ML, Cameron LL, Michels Blanck H, Tolbert PE, Rubin C, Henderson AK, Marcus M. (2007). Maternal exposure to polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls: infant birth weight and gestational age. Chemosphere. 69(8):1295-304

Hoffman CS, Small CM, Blanck HM, Tolbert P, Rubin C, Marcus M. (2007). Endometriosis among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls. Ann Epidemiol. 17(7):503-10. Epub 2007 Apr 19.

IARC. (2016). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks humans. Vol. 107: Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls. World Health Organization, Lyon, France, 443-492.

Jamieson DJ, Terrell ML, Aguocha NN, Small CM, Cameron LL, Marcus M. (2011) Dietary exposure to brominated flame retardants and abnormal Pap test results. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 20(9):1269-78. 

Joseph AD, Terrell ML, Small CM, Cameron LL, Marcus M. (2009). Assessing inter-generational transfer of a brominated flame retardant. J Environ Monit.11(4):802-7.

NIOSH (1979). Health Hazard Evaluation Determination Report HE 77-73-610 Velsicol Chemical Corporation. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Center for Disease Control National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

NTP (2016). Report on carcinogens, 14th edition – substance profile on polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). National Toxicology Program.

NTP. (1983). Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of a Polybrominated Biphenyl Mixture (Firemaster FF-1) (CAS No. 67774-32-7) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). Technical Report Series no. 244. NIH Publication No. 82-1800. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Toxicology Program. 106 pp.

Sjödin A, Wong LY, Jones RS, Park A, Zhang Y, Hodge C, Dipietro E, McClure C, Turner W, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr. (2008). Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) in the United States population: 2003-2004. Environ Sci Technol.15;42(4):1377-84.

Small CM, DeCaro JJ, Terrell ML, Dominguez C, Cameron LL, Wirth J, Marcus M. (2009). Maternal exposure to a brominated flame retardant and genitourinary conditions in male offspring. Environ Health Perspect. 117(7):1175-9.

Small CM, Murray D, Terrell ML, Marcus M. (2011) Reproductive outcomes among women exposed to a brominated flame retardant in utero. Arch Environ Occup Health. 66(4):201-8.

Terrell ML, Berzen AK, Small CM, Cameron LL, Wirth JJ, Marcus M. (2009). A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). Environ Health. 15;8:35.

Terrell ML, Rosenblatt KA, Wirth J, Cameron LL, Marcus M. (2016). Breast cancer among women in Michigan following exposure to brominated flame retardants. Occup Environ Med.73(8):564-7.

Vasiliu O, Cameron L, Gardiner J, Deguire P, Karmaus W. (2006). Polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated biphenyls, body weight, and incidence of adult-onset diabetes mellitus Epidemiology.17(4):352-9.

Wolff MS, Anderson HA, Rosenman KD, Selikoff IJ. (1979). Equilibrium of polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) residues in serum and fat of Michigan residents. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 21(6):775-81.

Wolff MS, Anderson HA, Selikoff IJ. (1982). Human tissue burdens of halogenated aromatic chemicals in Michigan. JAMA.16;247(15):2112-6.

Wolff MS, Aubrey B, Camper F, Haymes N. (1978). Relation of DDE and PBB serum levels in farm residents, consumers, and Michigan Chemical Corporation employees. Environ Health Perspect. 23:177-81.

Yard EE, Terrell ML, Hunt DR, Cameron LL, Small CM, McGeehin MA, Marcus M. (2011). Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan 1974 – 2006.  Chemosphere. 84(7):863-8.