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Care for MiWell

Diagram of a private residential well. Shows a single family home connected to a private drinking water well.

Care for MiWell

Do you have private residential well water?

Michigan has over one million private residential wells. These wells serve over 2.6 million people, statewide. That is nearly 30% of Michigan residents!

  • A private residential well supplies water to a single-family home.
  • Water is pumped from groundwater using a water well.

If you have a private well there are things that you should do to monitor your well system and your drinking water to protect your family's health.


How does the water get to your home through a private residential well?

Learn more in this MiEnviroMinute video.

How does the water get to your home through a private residential well? Video

Private Residential Well Construction and Maintenance

Taking care of your water is important; your family's health depends on it. Understanding how your private residential well works will help you take care of your water.

Well Assessed

Take a look at your private residential well today. Click here to read the Well Assessed Project flyer to learn about how you can complete a quick, 10-minute step-by-step well inspection and let us know what you see.

  • The Michigan Water Well Construction and Pump Installation Code helps protect the health of Michigan well owners. Understanding well construction helps determine any required well maintenance.

    Most wells in Michigan are drilled wells. Drilled wells are constructed using plastic or steel casing to keep soil and contaminants out. These wells are drilled deep enough to prevent surface water contamination.  

    Planning on installing a new private residential well?

    Work with your local health department to learn about well construction applications, permits, and inspections.

    Private Residential Well Parts

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a private residential well diagram showing the parts of a well system. There are a few basic parts:

    • Well Casings are pipes that stretch from the surface down to the groundwater. This prevents some contaminants from getting into the drinking water. Well casing in Michigan must comply with the well construction code.
    • Well Caps are on the top of the well casing to prevent insects, dirt, or vegetation from entering the top of the well. Well caps in Michigan must be on the approved list of components.
    • Well Screens are installed at the bottom of certain well casings to help prevent sediment like sand and gravel from getting into the well.

    Thumbnail image of the "Protect against the unknown - test your drinking water from your well" fact sheet


    Consider testing your drinking water if you live nearby a potential PFAS source. 

    If you live near a potential source or if you are unsure, consider testing your drinking water as a precaution. Call the MDHHS Environmental and Health Hotline at 800-648-6942 to see if your home is in an area that is under investigation for PFAS. We may be able to test your water for free. 

    If we cannot test your water for free, contact a certified drinking water lab about PFAS testing and the test cost. They can help you get sample bottles and provide instructions on how to collect your water sample yourself. Visit for a list of labs that offer PFAS testing. 

    It is important to follow the instructions provided for accurate results. To read more on home testing guidance for PFAS, visit

    For more information take a look at the PFAS in Drinking Water for private residential Well Owners Fact Sheet.

To stay up to date with current resources and opportunities being offered through the program, subscribe to the Drinking Water and Health newsletter.

If you have questions, please contact the MDHHS Drinking Water Hotline at 844-934-1315.