Risk Factors in Adults with Diabetes and the General Population

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  Ever Told Diabetes
Risk Factora Frequency in 100 (%) 95% Confidence Interval (%)

Ever Told High Blood Pressureb

75.0 (72.8-77.1)

Ever Told high Cholesterolb

68.6 (66.2-70.9)
Overweight and Obese Combined 87.6 (86.0-89.0)
No Leisure-Time Physical Activity 35.4 (33.3-37.4)
Current smoker 18.0 (16.3-20.0)
  Never Told Diabetes
Risk Factora Frequency in 100 (%) 95% Confidence Interval (%)

Ever Told High Blood Pressureb

29.8 (29.0-30.7)

Ever Told high Cholesterolb

37.4 (36.4-38.4)
Overweight and Obese Combined 63.3 (62.5-64.1)
No Leisure-Time Physical Activity 22.4 (21.7-23.1)
Current smoker 23.2 (22.5-24.0)
  General Population
Risk Factora Frequency in 100 (%) 95% Confidence Interval (%)

Ever Told High Blood Pressureb

34.4 (33.6-35.2)

Ever Told High Cholesterolb

41.2 (40.2-42.1)
Overweight and Obese Combined 65.8 (65.0-66.5)
No Leisure-Time Physical Activity 23.8 (23.1-24.4)
Current smoker 22.7 (22.0-23.4)

a 2011-2013 Michigan BRFSS data unless otherwise indicated.

b 2011 and 2013 Michigan BRFSS data.

Data Sources
Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (MiBRFSS). Lifecourse Epidemiology and Genomics Division, Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (www.michigan.gov/brfs).

Definitions and Methods

Prevalence: The total number of cases in a specified population at a given time.

Confidence Interval (CI): A range about a measurement that expresses the precision of the measurement. A 95% CI can be interpreted as the following: if we selected 100 random samples from the population and used these samples to calculate 100 different confidence intervals, approximately 95 of the intervals would cover the true population estimate and five would not. The wider the interval means the more imprecise the measurement, the narrower the interval the more precise the measurement.

The MiBRFSS comprises annual, state-level telephone surveys of the non-institutionalized adult population, 18 years and older. The MiBRFSS provides self-reported information on behavioral risk factors for disease and on preventive health practices within the state.

Ever Told Diabetes Indicator: Adult respondents (18 years and over) were asked whether a health professional had ever told them that they had diabetes. To exclude gestational diabetes, women were asked whether they had been told they had diabetes other than during pregnancy. Adult respondents who answered "yes" were considered being diagnosed with diabetes and subsequently asked at what age they were diagnosed.

Never Told Diabetes Indicator: Adult respondents (18 years and over) who responded "no" when asked whether a health professional had ever told them that they had diabetes.

Ever Told High Blood Pressure Indicator: Adult respondents (18 years and over) who responded "yes" when asked whether a health professional had ever told them that they had high blood pressure.

Ever Told Cholesterol Indicator: Adult respondents (18 years and over) who responded "yes" that their blood cholesterol had been checked within the past five years were further asked whether a health professional had ever told them that they had high cholesterol.

Overweight and Obese Combined Indicator: Adult respondents (18 years and over) classified as having a BMI of at least 25 kg/m2.

No Leisure-Time Physical Activity Indicator: Adult respondents (18 years and over) who responded "no" when asked whether they had participated in any leisure time physical activities or exercises such as running, calisthenics, golf, gardening, or walking for exercise during the past month.

Current Smoker Indicator: Adult respondents (18 years and over) who responded "yes" when asked had they ever smoked at least 100 cigarettes (5 packs) in their life and that they smoke cigarettes now, either every day or on some days.

Limitations
Diabetes affects over one million of the Michigan adult population; however, CDC estimates that about one quarter of adults is undiagnosed, which may result in part to an underestimate in the MiBRFSS prevalence. Furthermore, both the Ever Told High Blood Pressure and Ever Told High Cholesterol indicators are lifetime prevalences and are not current prevalences.